When starting an effectiveness review, the systematic review team develops an analytic framework. The analytic framework illustrates how the intervention approach is thought to affect public health. It guides the search for evidence and may be used to summarize the evidence collected. The analytic framework often includes intermediate outcomes, potential effect modifiers, potential harms, and potential additional benefits.
Analytic Framework [PDF - 293 kB]
The number of studies and publications do not always correspond (e.g., a publication may include several studies or one study may be explained in several publications).
Alaimo K, Oleksyk SC, Drzal NB, Golzynski DL, Lucarelli JF, Wen Y, et al. Effects of changes in lunch-time competitive foods, nutrition practices, and nutrition policies on low-income middle-school children's diets. Childhood Obesity 2013;9(6):509-23.
Blum JE, Davee AM, Beaudoin CM, Jenkins PL, Kaley LA, Wigand DA. Reduced availability of sugar-sweetened beverages and diet soda has a limited impact on beverage consumption patterns in Maine high school youth. J Nutr Educ Behav 2008;40(6):341-7.
Cradock AL, McHugh A, Mont-Ferguson H, Grant L, Barrett JL, Wang YC, et al. Effect of school district policy change on consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages among high school students, Boston, Massachusetts, 2004-2006. Preventing Chronic Disease 2011;8(4):A74.
Hennessy E, Oh A, Agurs-Collins T, Chriqui JF, Masse LC, Moser RP, et al. State-level school competitive food and beverage laws are associated with children's weight status. J Sch Health 2014;84(9):609-16.
Jones SJ, Gonzalez W, Frongillo EA. Policies that restrict sweetened beverage availability may reduce consumption in elementary-school children. Public Health Nutr 2009;13(4):589-95.
Palakshappa D, Fiks AG, Faerber JA, Feudtner C. Association between state school nutrition laws and subsequent child obesity. Prev Med 2016;90:107-13.
Schwartz MB, Novak SA, Fiore SS. The impact of removing snacks of low nutritional value from middle schools. Health Educ Behav 2009;36(6):999-1011.
Taber DR, Chriqui JF, Perna FM, Powell LM, Chaloupka FJ. Weight status among adolescents in States that govern competitive food nutrition content. Pediatrics 2012a;130(3):437-44.
Taber DR, Chriqui JF, Powell LM, Chaloupka FJ. Banning all sugar-sweetened beverages in middle schools: reduction of in-school access and purchasing but not overall consumption. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2012b;166(3):256-62.
Taber DR, Chriqui JF, Chaloupka FJ. Differences in nutrient intake associated with state laws regarding fat, sugar, and caloric content of competitive foods. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2012c;166(5):452-8.
Taber DR, Chriqui JF, Vuillaume R, Kelder SH, Chaloupka FJ. The association between state bans on soda only and adolescent substitution with other sugar-sweetened beverages: a cross-sectional study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2015;12 Suppl 1:S7.
Terry-McElrath YM, Chriqui JF, O’Malley PM, Chaloupka FJ, Johnston LD. Regular soda policies, school availability, and high school student consumption. Am J Prev Med 2015; 48(4): 436-44.
Wordell D, Daratha K, Mandal B, Bindler R, Butkus SN. Changes in a middle school food environment affect food behavior and food choices. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 2012;112(1):137-141.
The search strategy described below was used for the following reviews of interventions to support healthier foods and beverages in schools:
The CPSTF findings are based on evidence from a systematic review published in 2013 (Wang et al, 2013) combined with more recent evidence. Wang et al. searched five bibliographic databases: MEDLINE®, EMBASE®, PsychInfo®, CINAHL®, and the Cochrane Library for relevant studies from their inception through April 22, 2013. The Community Guide systematic review team conducted an updated search for evidence through January 4, 2017. In the updated search for evidence, PubMed® was used instead of MEDLINE®, and a search was conducted using Clinicaltrials.com.
Search terms and search strategies were adjusted to each database, based on controlled and uncontrolled vocabularies and search software. Once the literature search was completed, Community Guide staff reviewed the citations using inclusion and exclusion criteria to narrow down the publications to be included.
Database: Embase (OVID)
Date Searched: 1/04/2017
- (school or schools or afterschool or kindergarten or educational-setting*).ti,ot,sh,ab,tw.
- school/ or high school/ or kindergarten/ or middle school/ or primary school/
- exp obesity/
- exp body composition/
- waist hip ratio/ or waist to height ratio/
- (bmi or healthy weight or body weight or adiposity or body mass index or skinfold thickness or body fat or waist circumference or waist hip ratio or waist to height ratio or body composition or overweight or obese or obesity or over weight).ti,ot,sh,ab,tw.
- body weight/
- (normal weight or normal weights or hip circumference).ti,ot,sh,ab,tw.
- body fat/
- body mass index/
- skinfold thickness/
- waist circumference/
- 1 or 2
- 3 or 4 or 5 or 6 or 7 or 8 or 9 or 10 or 11 or 12
- 13 and 14
- 2014*.em. or 2015*.em. or 2016*.em. [Individual update weeks were no longer available to be searched for 2014.]
- 15 and 16
- limit 17 to english language
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations to prevent and control iron deficiency in the United States. MMWR 1998;47: 1-29.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. School health guidelines to promote healthy eating and physical activity. MMWRM 2011;60(5):1-76.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. School Nutrition Environment. Atlanta (GA): 2016 [cited 2017 Jan 4]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/nutrition/schoolnutrition.htm .
Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 (Report to the Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary of Health and Human Services). Washington (DC): 2010 [cited 2017 Jan 4]. Available from: http://www.nutriwatch.org/05Guidelines/dga_advisory_2010.pdf.
Wang Y, Wu Y, Wilson RF, Bleich S, Cheskin L, et al. Childhood Obesity Prevention Programs: Comparative Effectiveness Review and Meta-Analysis. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ); 2013.