When starting an effectiveness review, the systematic review team develops an analytic framework. The analytic framework illustrates how the intervention approach is thought to affect public health. It guides the search for evidence and may be used to summarize the evidence collected. The analytic framework often includes intermediate outcomes, potential effect modifiers, potential harms, and potential additional benefits.
Analytic Framework [PDF - 293 kB]
The number of studies and publications do not always correspond (e.g., a publication may include several studies or one study may be explained in several publications).
Muckelbauer R, Libuda L, Clausen K, Toschke AM, Reinehr T, Kersting M. Promotion and provision of drinking water in schools for overweight prevention: randomized, controlled cluster trial. Nutrition Today 212;47:S27-34.
Schwartz AE, Leardo M, Aneja S, Elbel B. Effect of a school-based water intervention on child body mass index and obesity. JAMA Pediatr 2016;170(3):220-6.
The search strategy described below was used for the following reviews of interventions to support healthier foods and beverages in schools:
The CPSTF findings are based on evidence from a systematic review published in 2013 (Wang et al, 2013) combined with more recent evidence. Wang et al. searched five bibliographic databases: MEDLINE®, EMBASE®, PsychInfo®, CINAHL®, and the Cochrane Library for relevant studies from their inception through April 22, 2013. The Community Guide systematic review team conducted an updated search for evidence through January 4, 2017. In the updated search for evidence, PubMed® was used instead of MEDLINE®, and a search was conducted using Clinicaltrials.com.
Search terms and search strategies were adjusted to each database, based on controlled and uncontrolled vocabularies and search software. Once the literature search was completed, Community Guide staff reviewed the citations using inclusion and exclusion criteria to narrow down the publications to be included.
Search Strategy - Effectiveness Review
Database: Embase (OVID)
Date Searched: 1/04/2017
- (school or schools or afterschool or kindergarten or educational-setting*).ti,ot,sh,ab,tw.
- school/ or high school/ or kindergarten/ or middle school/ or primary school/
- exp obesity/
- exp body composition/
- waist hip ratio/ or waist to height ratio/
- (bmi or healthy weight or body weight or adiposity or body mass index or skinfold thickness or body fat or waist circumference or waist hip ratio or waist to height ratio or body composition or overweight or obese or obesity or over weight).ti,ot,sh,ab,tw.
- body weight/
- (normal weight or normal weights or hip circumference).ti,ot,sh,ab,tw.
- body fat/
- body mass index/
- skinfold thickness/
- waist circumference/
- 1 or 2
- 3 or 4 or 5 or 6 or 7 or 8 or 9 or 10 or 11 or 12
- 13 and 14
- 2014*.em. or 2015*.em. or 2016*.em. [Individual update weeks were no longer available to be searched for 2014.]
- 15 and 16
- limit 17 to english language
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations to prevent and control iron deficiency in the United States. MMWR 1998;47: 1-29.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. School health guidelines to promote healthy eating and physical activity. MMWR 2011;60(5):1-76.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. School Nutrition Environment. Atlanta (GA): 2016 [cited 2017 Jan 4]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/nutrition/schoolnutrition.htm .
Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 (Report to the Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary of Health and Human Services). Washington (DC): 2010 [cited 2017 Jan 4]. Available from: http://www.nutriwatch.org/05Guidelines/dga_advisory_2010.pdf.
Wang Y, Wu Y, Wilson RF, Bleich S, Cheskin L, et al. Childhood Obesity Prevention Programs: Comparative Effectiveness Review and Meta-Analysis. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ); 2013. Report No.: 13-EHC081-EF.