The number of studies and publications do not always correspond (e.g., a publication may include several studies or one study may be explained in several publications).
Barancik JI, Kramer CF, Thode HC Jr, Harris D. Efficacy of the New York State seat belt law: preliminary assessment of occurrence and severity. Bull N Y Acad Med 1988;64:742–9.
Beaton SJ, Pearson GL, Arnegard RJ, Quinn KD. A field evaluation of the effectiveness of the Virginia safety belt law. Forensic Rep 1988;1:229–36.
Bernstein E, Pathak D, Rutledge L, Demarest G. New Mexico safety restraint law: changing patterns of motor vehicle injury, severity, and cost. Am J Emerg Med 1989;7:271–7.
Brillhart BA, Jay HM. The impact of Texas state legislation on the use of safety belts. Rehabil Nurs 1988;13:146–9.
Campbell BJ, Stewart JR, Reinfurt DW. Change in injuries associated with safety belt laws. Accid Anal Prev 1991;23:87–93.
Chorba TL, Reinfurt D, Hulka BS. Efficacy of mandatory seat-belt use legislation. The North Carolina experience from 1983 through 1987. JAMA 1988;260:3593–7.
Cope JG, Johnson AW, Grossnickle WF. Behavior engineering proposals: 3. Effects on drivers and passengers of a mandatory use law for safety belts. Percept Mot Skills 1990;71:291–8.
Desai A, You MB. Policy implications from an evaluation of seat belt use regulation. Eval Rev 1992;16:247–65.
Dodson TB, Kaban LB. California mandatory seat belt law: the effect of recent legislation on motor vehicle accident related maxillofacial injuries. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1988;46:875–80.
Escobedo LG, Chorba TL, Remington PL, Anda RF, Sanderson L, Zaidi AA. The influence of safety belt laws on self-reported safety belt use in the United States. Accid Anal Prev 1992;24:643–53.
Fielding JE, Knight KK, Goetzel RZ. The impact of legislation on self-reported safety belt use in a working population. J Occup Med 1992;34:715–7.
Kalfus GR, Ferrari JR, Arean P, et al. An examination of the New York mandatory seat belt law on a university campus. Law Hum Behav 1987;11:63–7.
Legge JS Jr. Reforming highway safety in New York state: an evaluation of alternative policy interventions. Soc Sci Q 1990;71:373–82.
Lestina DC, Williams AF, Lund AK, Zador P, Kuhlmann TP. Motor vehicle crash injury patterns and the Virginia seat belt law. JAMA 1991;265:1409–13.
Loeb PD. Effectiveness of seat belt legislation in reducing various driver-involved injury rates in California. Accid Anal Prev 1993;25:189–97.
Loeb PD. The effectiveness of seat belt legislation in reducing injury rates in Texas. Am Econ Rev 1995;85:81–4.
Lund AK, Pollner J, Williams AF. Preliminary estimates of the effects of mandatory seat belt use laws. Accid Anal Prev 1987;19:219–23.
Margolis LH, Bracken J, Stewart JR. Effects of North Carolina’s mandatory safety belt law on children. Inj Prev 1996;2:32–5.
Pace BW, Thailer R, Kwiatkowski TG. New York State mandatory seatbelt use law: patterns of seatbelt use before and after legislation. J Trauma 1986;26:1031–3.
Preusser DF, Lund AK, Williams AF, Blomberg RD. Belt use by high-risk drivers before and after New York’s seat belt use law. Accid Anal Prev 1988;20:245–50.
Preusser DF, Williams AF, Lund AK. The effect of New York’s seat belt use law on teenage drivers. Accid Anal Prev 1987;19:73–80.
Reinfurt DW, Campbell BJ, Stewart JR, Stutts JC. Evaluating the North Carolina safety belt wearing law. Accid Anal Prev 1990;22:197–210.
Russell J, Kresnow M, Brackbill R. Effect of adult belt laws and other factors on restraint use for children under age 11. Accid Anal Prev 1994;26:287–95.
States JD, Annechiarico RP, Good RG, et al. A time comparison study of the New York State safety belt use law utilizing hospital admission and police accident report information. Accid Anal Prev 1990;22:509–21.
Streff F, Wagenaar AC, Schultz RH. Reductions in police-reported injuries associated with Michigan’s safety belt law. J Safety Res 1990;21:9–18.
Thyer BA, Robertson M. An initial evaluation of the Georgia safety belt use law: a nul MUL? Environment Behav 1993;25:506–13.
Tipton RM, Camp CC, Hsu K. Effects of mandatory seat belt legislation on self-reported seat belt use among male and female college students. Accid Anal Prev 1990;22:543–8.
Ulmer RG, Preusser CW, Preusser DF, Cosgrove LA. Evaluation of California’s safety belt law change from secondary to primary enforcement. J Safety Res 1995;26:213–20.
Wagenaar AC, Margolis LH. Effects of a mandatory safety belt law on hospital admissions. Accid Anal Prev 1990;22:253–61.
Wagenaar AC, Maybee RG, Sullivan KP. Mandatory seat belt laws in eight states: a time-series evaluation. J Safety Res 1988;19:51–70.
Wagenaar AC, Wiviott MB. Effects of mandating seatbelt use: a series of surveys on compliance in Michigan. Public Health Rep 1986;101:505–13.
Williams AF, Wells JK, Lund AK. Shoulder belt use in four states with belt use laws. Accid Anal Prev 1987;19:251–60.
Winnicki J. Safety belt use laws: evaluation of primary enforcement and other provisions. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 1995. DOT HS 808 324.
The following outlines the search strategy used for reviews of these interventions to increase use of safety belts: Laws Mandating Use; Primary (vs. Secondary) Enforcement Laws; Enhanced Enforcement Programs.
The reviews of interventions to reduce motor vehicle-related injury reflect systematic searches of multiple databases as well as reviews of reference lists and consultations with experts in the field. The team searched six computerized databases (MEDLINE, Embase, Psychlit, Sociological Abstracts, EI Compendex, and Transportation Research Information Services [TRIS]), which yielded 10,958 titles and abstracts for articles, book chapters, reports, and published papers from the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine proceedings about safety belts, alcohol-impaired driving or child passenger safety. Studies were eligible for inclusion if:
- They were published from the originating date of the database through June 2000 (March 1998 for child safety seat interventions)
- They involved primary studies, not guidelines or reviews
- They were published in English
- They were relevant to the interventions selected for review
- The evaluation included a comparison to an unexposed or less-exposed population
- The evaluation measured outcomes defined by the analytic framework for the intervention
Search Strategy for Use of Safety Belts
(MOTOR(W)VEHICLE?) OR AUTOMOBILE? OR CAR OR CARS OR TRUCK? OR (TRAFFIC(2N)(ACCIDENT? OR CRASH? OR DEATH? OR FATALIT? OR INJUR?))
(SEAT(W)BELT?) OR SEATBELT? OR (SAFETY(W)RESTRAINT?) OR (SAFETY(W)BELT?) OR (OCCUPANT(W)RESTRAINT?) OR OCCUPANT(W)PROTECTION)
INTERVENTION? OR OUTREACH? OR PREVENTION OR (COMMUNITY(3N)(RELATION? OR PROGRAM? OR ACTION)) OR DETERRENT? OR PROGRAM? OR LEGISLATION? OR LAW? OR EDUCATION OR DETERRENCE OR COUNSELING OR CLASS OR CLASSES OR TRAINING OR PROMOTION? OR BEHAVIOR?
PEDESTRIAN? OR MOTORCYCLE OR BICYCL? OR CYCLIST? OR (SCHOOL(W)BUS?) OR BUS OR BUSES OR AIRPLANE? OR AIR(W)TRANSPORTATION?) OR AVIATION? OR (AIR(W)TRAFFIC) OR (AIR(W)CRAFT) OR DIAGNOSIS OR THERAPY OR GUIDELINE OR COMMENT? OR HISTORY OR EDITORIAL