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Motor Vehicle Injury – Alcohol-Impaired Driving: School-Based Programs – Social Norming Campaigns


What the CPSTF Found

About The Systematic Review

The CPSTF finding is based on evidence from a systematic review of two studies (search period through December 2002).

The review was conducted on behalf of the CPSTF by scientists from CDC’s Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention with input from a team of specialists in systematic review methods and experts in research, practice and policy related to motor vehicle injury prevention.

Summary of Results

More details about study results are available in the published evidence review pdf icon [PDF - 258 KB].

The systematic review included two studies.

  • While social norming campaigns reduced driving after drinking among college students exposed to the messages, the studies used relatively weak before-and-after designs which made it difficult to draw firm conclusions.

Summary of Economic Evidence

An economic review of this intervention was not conducted because CPSTF did not have enough information to determine if the intervention works.


Applicability of this intervention across different settings and populations was not assessed because CPSTF did not have enough information to determine if the intervention works.

Evidence Gaps

CPSTF identified several areas that have limited information. Additional research and evaluation could help answer the following questions and fill remaining gaps in the evidence base. (What are evidence gaps?)

  • To what extent are the outcomes of school-based education programs dependent on the following?
    • Content, delivery method, and the perceived status of the person delivering the intervention
    • Characteristics of the students
  • What effect do interventions have on alcohol-related traffic violations and crashes?
  • How can studies reduce attrition to increase power and validity?

Study Characteristics

  • Both of the evaluated programs included campus media efforts to reduce alcohol use.
  • One of the studies also involved a peer-to-peer theater component that was presented in conjunction with the campus-wide media effort and was the focus of the evaluation.