The number of studies and publications do not always correspond (e.g., a publication may include several studies or one study may be explained in several publications).
Averhoff F, Linton L, Peddecord KM, Edwards C, Wang W, Fishbein D. A middle school immunization law rapidly and substantially increases immunization coverage among adolescents. Am J Public Health 2004;94:978-84.
Bardenheier B, Kong Y, Shefer A, Zhou F, Shih S. Managed care organizations' performance in delivery of childhood immunizations (HEDIS, 1999-2002). Am J Manag Care 2007;13:193-200.
Baughman AL, Williams WW, Atkinson WL, Cook LG, Collins M. Impact of college prematriculation immunization requirements on risk for measles outbreaks. JAMA 1994;272:1127–32.
Bugenske E, Stokley S, Kennedy A, Dorell C. Middle school vaccination requirements and adolescent vaccination coverage. Pediatrics 2012;129(6):1056-63.
Carlson JAK, Lewis CA. Effect of the immunization program in Ontario schools. CMAJ 1985;133:215–6.
Castel AD, Reed G, Davenport MG, Harrison LH, Blythe D. College and university compliance with a required meningococcal vaccination law. J Am Coll Health 2007;56:119-27.
Chaiken BP, Williams NM, Preblud SR, Parkin W, Altman R. Effect of a school entry law on mumps activity in a school district. JAMA 1987;257:2455–8.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. School immunization requirements for measles—United States, 1981. MMWR 1981;30:158–60.
Davis MM, Gaglia MA. Associations of daycare and school entry vaccination requirements with varicella immunization rates. Vaccine 2005; 23:3053-60.
Duggirala HJ, Hassig SE, Santana S, Rice J. Evaluation of a hepatitis A immunization program. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2005;24:974-8.
Fogarty KJ, Massoudi MS, Gallo W, Averhoff FM, Yusuf H, Fishbein D. Vaccine coverage levels after implementation of a middle school vaccination requirement, Florida, 1997-2000. Pub Health Rep 2004;119:163-9.
Hadler JL, Yousey-Hindes K, Kudish K, Kennedy ED, Sacco V, Cartter ML; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Impact of requiring influenza vaccination for children in licensed child care or preschool programs--Connecticut, 2012-13 influenza season. MMWR 2014;63(10):224.
Jacobs RJ, Meyerhoff AS. Effect of middle school entry requirements on hepatitis B vaccination coverage. J Adolesc Health 2004;34:420-3.
James DC, Chen WW. A population-based hepatitis B vaccination coverage survey among Asian and Pacific Islander American students in Alachua County, Florida. Asian Am Pac Isl J Health 2001;9:188.
Kolasa MS, Chilkatowsky AP, Stevenson JM, Lutz JP, Watson BM, Levenson R et al. Do laws bring children in child care centers up to date for immunizations? Ambul Pediatr 2003;3:154-7.
Liu H, Hynes K, Lim JM, Chung HI. Hepatitis B Catch-Up Project: analysis of 1999 data from the Chicago Public Schools. Asian Am Pac Isl J Health 2001;9:205-10.
Lopez AS, Kolasa MS, Seward JF. Status of school entry requirements for varicella vaccination and vaccination coverage 11 years after implementation of the varicella vaccination program. J Infect Dis 2008;197:S76-81.
Mele A, Stroffolini T, Zanetti AR. Hepatitis B in Italy: Where we are ten years after the introduction of mass vaccination. J Med Virol 2002; 67(3):440-3.
Morita JY, Ramirez E, Trick WE. Effect of a school-entry vaccination requirement on racial and ethnic disparities in hepatitis B immunization coverage levels among public school students. Pediatrics 2008;121:e547-52.
Nelson DB, Layde MM, Chatton TB. Rubella susceptibility in inner-city adolescents: the effect of a school immunization law. Am J Public Health 1982;72:710–3.
Olshen E, Mahon BE, Wang S, Woods ER. The impact of state policies on vaccine coverage by age 13 in an insured population. J Adolesc Health 2007;40:405-11.
Potter RC; DeVita SF; Vranesich PA; Boulton ML. Adolescent immunization coverage and implementation of new school requirements in Michigan, 2010. Am J Public Health 2014;104(8):1526-33.
Rickert D, Deladisma A, Yusuf H, Averhoff F, Brink E, Shih S. Adolescent immunizations. Are we ready for a new wave? Am J Prev Med 2004;26:22-8.
Robbins KB, Brandling-Bennett AD, Hinman AR. Low measles incidence: association with enforcement of school immunization laws. Am J Public Health 1981;71:270–4.
Scheiber M, Halfon N. Immunizing California's children: Effects of current policies on immunization levels. West J Med 1990;153:400–5.
Schulte EE, Birkhead GS, Kondracki SF, Morse DL. Patterns of Haemophilus influenzae type b invasive disease in New York state, 1987 to 1991: the role of vaccination requirements for day-care attendance. Pediatrics 1994;94:1014–6.
Simpson JE, Hills RA, Allwes D, Rasmussen L. Uptake of meningococcal vaccine in Arizona schoolchildren after implementation of school-entry immunization requirements. Public Health Rep 2013;128(1):37-45.
Stanwyck CA, Kolasa MS, Shaw KM. Immunization requirements for childcare programs. Are they enough? Am J Prev Med 2004;27:161-3.
Sugaya N, Takeuchi Y. Mass vaccination of schoolchildren against influenza and its impact on the influenza-associated mortality rate among children in Japan. Clin Infect Dis 2005;41:939-47.
van Loon FPL, Holmes SJ, Sirotkin BI, et al. Mumps surveillance—United States, 1988–1993. MMWR Surveillance Summaries 1995;44(SS-3):1–14.
Weiss T, Zhang D, Borse NN, Walter EB. Initiation & completion rates of hepatitis A vaccination among US pediatric populations born between 2005 and 2009. Vaccine 2015;33(48):6871-7.
Wilson TR, Fishbein DB, Ellis PA, Edlavitch SA. The impact of a school entry law on adolescent immunization rates. J Adolesc Health 2005;37:511-16.
Included Studies - Economic Review
Abrevaya J, Mulligan K. Effectiveness of state-level vaccination mandates: evidence from the varicella vaccine. J Health Econ 2011;30(5):966-76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhealeco.2011.06.003.
Jacobs RJ, Meyerhoff AS. Effect of middle school entry requirements on hepatitis B vaccination coverage. J Adolesc Health 2004;34(5):420-3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X(03)00343-4.
Search Strategy - Economic Review
The present review included studies that reported economic outcomes from the 2000 review (search period 1980-1997) combined with studies identified from updated searches (search period 1997- February 2012) within the standard medical and health-related research databases, Google Scholar, and databases specialized to economics and social sciences. The details of the two sets of searches are provided below.
Details of the Updated Search (1997- February 2012)
The team conducted a broad literature search to identify studies assessing interventions to improve vaccination rates. The following nine databases were searched during the period of 1997 up to February 2012: CABI, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, ERIC, MEDLINE, PSYCHINFO, Soci Abs and WOS. In addition, Google Scholar and specialized databases (CRD-University of York: NHS EED, EconLit, and JSTOR), were also searched. Reference lists of articles reviewed as well as lists in review articles were also considered, and subject matter experts consulted for additional references.
- Immunization Programs
To be included in the updated review, a study had to do the following:
- Have a publication date of 1997- February 2012
- Evaluate vaccinations with universal recommendations
- Meet the evidence review and Community Guide review team's definition of the interventions
- Be a primary research study with one or more outcomes related to the analytic framework(s)
- Take place in a high income country or countries
- Be written in English; and
- Compare a group of persons who had been exposed to the intervention with a group who had not been exposed or who had been less exposed.
Details of the Original Search (1980-1997)
The following five electronic databases were searched during the original review period of 1980 up to1997: MEDLINE, Embase, Psychlit, CAB Health, and Sociological Abstracts. The team also reviewed reference lists in articles and consulted with immunization experts. To be included, a study had to do the following:
- Have a publication date of 1980–1997
- Address universally recommended adult, adolescent, or childhood vaccinations
- Be a primary study rather than, for example, a guideline or review
- Take place in an industrialized country or countries
- Be written in English
- Meet the definition of the interventions
- Provide information on one or more outcomes related to the analytic frameworks; and
- Compare a group of persons who had been exposed to the intervention with a group who had not been exposed or who had been less exposed. In addition, we excluded studies with least suitable designs for two interventions (provider reminder/recall and client reminder/recall) where the literature was most extensive.