The number of studies and publications do not always correspond (e.g., a publication may include several studies or one study may be explained in several publications).
Barnes K, Friedman SM, Brickner NP, Honig J. Impact of community volunteers on immunization rates of children younger than 2 years. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 1999;153(5):518-24.
Bond LM, Nolan TM, Lester RA. Home vaccination for children behind in their immunisation schedule: a randomised controlled trial. Medical Journal of Australia 1998;168(10):487-90.
Dalby DM, Sellors JW, Fraser FD, Fraser C, van IC, Howard M. Effect of preventive home visits by a nurse on the outcomes of frail elderly people in the community: a randomized controlled trial. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2000;162:497-500.
Daniels NA, Juarbe T, Moreno-John G, Perez-Stable EJ. Effectiveness of adult vaccination programs in faith-based organizations. Ethnicity & Disease 2007;17(Suppl 1):S15-22.
Etkind P, Simon M, Shannon S, et al. The impact of the medicare influenza demonstration project on inlfuenza vaccination in a county in Massachusetts, 1988–1992. Journal of Community Health 1996;21(3):199-209.
Findley SE, Irigoyen M, Sanchez M, et al. Effectiveness of a community coalition for improving child vaccination rates in New York City. American Journal of Public Health 2008;98(11):1959-62.
Findley SE, Sanchez M, Mejia M, et al. Effective strategies for integrating immunization promotion into community programs. Health Promotion Practice 2009;10(Suppl 2):128S-137S.
Goldstein KP, Lauderdale DS, Glushak C, Walter J, Daum RS. Immunization outreach in an inner-city housing development: reminder-recall on foot. Pediatrics 1999;104(6):e69.
LeBaron CW, Starnes D, Dini EF, Chambliss JW, Chaney M. The impact of interventions by a community-based organization on inner- city vaccination coverage: Fulton County, Georgia, 1992-1993. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 1998;152(4):327-32.
LeBaron CW, Starnes DM, Rask KJ. The Impact of Reminder-Recall Interventions on Low Vaccination Coverage in an Inner-City Population. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 2004;158(3):255-61.
Lemstra M, Rajakumar D, Thompson A, Moraros J. The effectiveness of telephone reminders and home visits to improve measles, mumps and rubella immunization coverage rates in children. Paediatrics and Child Health 2011;16(1):e1-e5.
Ohmit SE, Furumoto-Dawson A, Monto AS, Fasano N. Influenza vaccine use among an elderly population in a community intervention. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 1995;11(4):271-6.
Paunio M, Virtanen M, Peltola H, et al. Increase of vaccination coverage by mass media and individual approach: intensified measles, mumps, and rubella prevention program in Finland. American Journal of Epidemiology 1991;133(11):1152.
Rodewald LE, Szilagyi PG, Humiston SG, Barth R, Kraus R, Raubertas RF. A randomized study of tracking with outreach and provider prompting to improve immunization coverage and primary care. Pediatrics 1999;103(1):31-8.
Stevens SC, Kelly L, Brayden RM. A health passport for adolescent parents and their children. Clinical Pediatrics 2001;40:169-72.
Szilagyi PG, Schaffer S, Shone L, et al. Reducing geographic, racial, and ethnic disparities in childhood immunization rates by using reminder/recall interventions in urban primary care practices. Pediatrics 2002;110(5):e58.
Vora S, Verber L, Potts S, Dozier T, Daum RS. Effect of a novel birth intervention and reminder-recall on on-time immunization compliance in high-risk children. Human Vaccines 2009;5(6):395-402.
Wood D, Halfon N, Donald-Sherbourne C, et al. Increasing immunization rates among inner-city, African American children: A randomized trial of case management. Journal of the American Medical Association 1998;279(1):29-34.
Yokley JM, Glenwick DS. Increasing the immunization of preschool children; an evaluation of applied community interventions. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 1984;17(3):313.
Included Studies - Economic Review
Bond LM, Nolan TM, Lester RA. Home vaccination for children behind in their immunisation schedule: a randomised controlled trial. Med J Aust 1998;168(10):487-490.
Browngoehl K, Kennedy K, Krotki K, Mainzer H. Increasing immunization: a Medicaid managed care model. Pediatrics 1997;99(1):e4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.99.1.e4.
Deuson RR, Brodovicz KG, Barker L, Zhou F, Euler GL. Economic analysis of a child vaccination project among Asian Americans in Philadelphia, PA. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2001;155(8):909-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.155.8.909.
El-Mohandes AAE, Katz KS, El-Khorazaty MN, et al. The effect of a parenting education program on the use of preventive pediatric health care services among low-income, minority mothers: a randomized, controlled study. Pediatrics 2003;111(6):1324. http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.111.6.1324.
Greengold B, Nyamathi A, Kominski G, et al. Cost-effectiveness analysis of behavioral interventions to improve vaccination compliance in homeless adults. Vaccine 2009;27(5):718-25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.11.031.
Hand JS, Anderson D, Feffer D, Day C. A successful school immunization program--or not? J Sch Health 1980;50(1):50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.1980.tb03888.x.
Hoekstra EJ, LeBaron CW, Johnson-Partlow TLD. Does reminder-recall augment the impact of voucher incentives on immunization rates among inner-city infants enrolled in WIC? J Pediatr 1999;135(2 Part 1):261. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3476(99)70033-8.
Kansagra SM, McGinty MD, Morgenthau BM, et al. Cost comparison of 2 mass vaccination campaigns against influenza A H1N1 in New York City. Am J Public Health 2011;102(7):1378-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2011.300363.
LeBaron CW, Starnes D, Dini EF, Chambliss JW, Chaney M. The impact of interventions by a community-based organization on inner-city vaccination coverage: Fulton County, Georgia, 1992-1993. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1998;152(4):327. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.152.4.327.
Moran WP, Nelson K, Wofford JL, Velez R, Case LD. Increasing influenza immunization among high-risk patients: education or financial incentive? Am J Med 1996;101(6):612-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9343(96)00327-0.
Paunio M, Virtanen M, Peltola H, et al. Increase of vaccination coverage by mass media and individual approach: intensified measles, mumps, and rubella prevention program in Finland. Am J Epidemiol 1991;133(11):1152.
Rask KJ, LeBaron CW, Starnes DM. The costs of registry-based immunization interventions. Am J Prev Med 2001;21(4):267-271. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0749-3797(01)00370-1.
Rodewald LE, Szilagyi PG, Humiston SG, Barth R, Kraus R, Raubertas RF. A randomized study of tracking with outreach and provider prompting to improve immunization coverage and primary care. Pediatrics 1999;103(1):31-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.103.1.31.
Sander B, Kwong JC, Bauch CT, et al. Economic appraisal of Ontario's Universal Influenza Immunization Program: a cost-utility analysis. PLoS Med 2010;7(4):e1000256. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000256.
Seal KH, Kral AH, Lorvick J, McNees A, Gee L, Edlin BR. A randomized controlled trial of monetary incentives vs. outreach to enhance adherence to the hepatitis B vaccine series among injection drug users. Drug Alcohol Depend 2003;71(2):127-31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0376-8716(03)00074-7.
Szilagyi PG, Humiston SG, Gallivan S, Albertin C, Sandler M, Blumkin A. Effectiveness of a citywide patient immunization navigator program on improving adolescent immunizations and preventive care visit rates. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2011;165(6):547. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpediatrics.2011.73.
Szilagyi PG, Schaffer S, Shone L, et al. Reducing geographic, racial, and ethnic disparities in childhood immunization rates by using reminder/recall interventions in urban primary care practices. Pediatrics 2002;110(5):e58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.110.5.e58.
Vora S, Verber L, Potts S, Dozier T, Daum RS. Effect of a novel birth intervention and reminder-recall on on-time immunization compliance in high-risk children. Hum Vaccin 2009;5(6):395. http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/hv.5.6.7282.
Westman S, Halbert RJ, Walton LG, Henneman CE. A clinic without walls: the Los Angeles Immunization Demonstration Project. Am J Public Health 1997;87(2):293-4.
Wood D, Halfon N, Donald-Sherbourne C, et al. Increasing immunization rates among inner-city, African American children. JAMA 1998;279(1):29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.279.1.29.
Yokley JM, Glenwick DS. Increasing the immunization of preschool children; an evaluation of applied community interventions. J Appl Behav Anal 1984;17(3):313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1984.17-313.
Zhou F, Euler GL, McPhee SJ, et al. Economic analysis of promotion of hepatitis B vaccinations among Vietnamese-American children and adolescents in Houston and Dallas. Pediatrics 2003;111(6):1289-96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.111.6.1289.
Search Strategy - Economic Review
The present review included studies that reported economic outcomes from the 2000 review (search period 1980-1997) combined with studies identified from updated searches (search period 1997- February 2012) within the standard medical and health-related research databases, Google Scholar, and databases specialized to economics and social sciences. The details of the two sets of searches are provided below.
Details of the Updated Search (1997- February 2012)
The team conducted a broad literature search to identify studies assessing interventions to improve vaccination rates. The following nine databases were searched during the period of 1997 up to February 2012: CABI, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, ERIC, MEDLINE, PSYCHINFO, Soci Abs and WOS. In addition, Google Scholar and specialized databases (CRD-University of York: NHS EED, EconLit, and JSTOR), were also searched. Reference lists of articles reviewed as well as lists in review articles were also considered, and subject matter experts consulted for additional references.
- Immunization Programs
To be included in the updated review, a study had to do the following:
- Have a publication date of 1997- February 2012
- Evaluate vaccinations with universal recommendations
- Meet the evidence review and Community Guide review team's definition of the interventions
- Be a primary research study with one or more outcomes related to the analytic framework(s)
- Take place in a high income country or countries
- Be written in English; and
- Compare a group of persons who had been exposed to the intervention with a group who had not been exposed or who had been less exposed.
Details of the Original Search (1980-1997)
The following five electronic databases were searched during the original review period of 1980 up to1997: MEDLINE, Embase, Psychlit, CAB Health, and Sociological Abstracts. The team also reviewed reference lists in articles and consulted with immunization experts. To be included, a study had to do the following:
- Have a publication date of 1980–1997
- Address universally recommended adult, adolescent, or childhood vaccinations
- Be a primary study rather than, for example, a guideline or review
- Take place in an industrialized country or countries
- Be written in English
- Meet the definition of the interventions
- Provide information on one or more outcomes related to the analytic frameworks; and
- Compare a group of persons who had been exposed to the intervention with a group who had not been exposed or who had been less exposed. In addition, we excluded studies with least suitable designs for two interventions (provider reminder/recall and client reminder/recall) where the literature was most extensive.