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Vaccination Programs: Client Reminder and Recall Systems

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What the Task Force Found

About The Systematic Review

The Task Force finding is based on evidence from a Community Guide systematic review completed in 2008 (19 studies, search period 1997-2007) combined with more recent evidence (10 studies, search period 2007-2012). The finding updates and replaces the 2008 finding for Client Reminder and Recall Systems pdf icon [PDF - 499 kB].

This review was conducted on behalf of the Task Force by a team of specialists in systematic review methods, and in research, practice, and policy related to increasing appropriate vaccination.

Context

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Summary of Results

Detailed information about study results are available in the Task Force Finding and Rationale Statement pdf icon [PDF - 490 kB].

Twenty-nine studies were included in the systematic review.

  • Overall vaccination rates increased by a median of 11 percentage points.
    • Client reminder and recall interventions used alone: median increase of 6 percentage points (14 studies).
    • Interventions implemented with additional components: median increase of 12 percentage points (15 studies).

Summary of Economic Evidence

Detailed information about study results are available in the Task Force Finding and Rationale Statement pdf icon [PDF - 490 kB].

Evidence indicates client reminder and recall systems can reach a large number of clients and increase vaccination rates with relatively few economic resources.

Twenty-four studies were included in the review (search period 1980 – 2012). All monetary values are presented in 2013 U.S. dollars.

  • Median intervention group size: 654 (23 studies).
  • Median cost per person per year: $2.13 (23 studies)
  • Median cost per additional person vaccinated: $15 (22 studies)

Applicability

Based on the results of the review, Task Force findings should be applicable to the following:

  • Children, adolescents, and adults
  • Various populations
  • Clinical and community settings at different levels of scale—from individual practice settings to entire communities
  • Programs that use a range of intervention characteristics (e.g., reminder or recall, content, theoretical basis, and method of delivery)
  • Programs used alone or with additional components
  • Assorted vaccinations

Evidence Gaps

Additional research and evaluation are needed in these areas, to fill existing gaps in the evidence base. (What are evidence gaps?)

  • How effective are client reminders that use emerging communication technologies such as text messaging?
  • Are interventions implemented by individual providers or healthcare systems, or through immunization information systems (IIS) effective? If so, are they cost-effective?
  • How effective are interventions with adolescent populations?
  • How effective are client reminders in communities with disparities in vaccination rates?

Study Characteristics

  • Evaluated interventions were used alone (14 studies) or with additional interventions (15 studies).
  • Studies were conducted in the United States (18 studies), Canada (3 studies), Denmark (1 study), New Zealand (1 study), and the United Kingdom (1 study).
  • Studies evaluated programs to address influenza (8 studies), influenza/pneumococcal (1 study), pneumococcal (1 study), DTP/DTaP (1 study), MMR (2 studies), tetanus (2 studies), and various childhood series (9 studies).

Publications