The Community Preventive Services Task Force recommendation for quitline interventions is based on evidence from two systematic reviews.
- 7 studies published between March 2009–July 2012 (Community Guide review of updated evidence)
- 65 studies published through March 2009 (Stead LF, Perera R, Lancaster T. Telephone counseling for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD002850. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002850.pub2.)
The number of studies and publications do not always correspond (e.g., a publication may include several studies or one study may be explained in several publications).
Studies from The Community Guide Updated Review (search period March 2009 – July 2012)
Bullock L, Everett KD, Mullen PD, Geden E, Longo DR, Madsen R. Baby BEEP: a randomized controlled trial of nurses' individualized social support for poor rural pregnant smokers. Maternal & Child Health Journal 2009;13:395-406.
Ellerbeck EF, Mahnken JD, Cupertino AP, Cox LS, Greiner KA, et al. Impact of varying levels of disease management on smoking cessation: a randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 2009;150(7):437-46.
Girgis S, Adily A, Velasco M, Zwar NA, Jalaludin BB, Ward JE. Feasibility, acceptability and impact of a telephone support service initiated in primary medical care to help Arabic smokers quit. Australian Journal of Primary Health 2011;17:274-81.
Graham AL, Cobb NK, Papandonatos GD, Moreno JL, Kang H, Tinkelman DG et al. A randomized trial of internet and telephone treatment for smoking cessation. Archives of Internal Medicine 2011;171(1):46-53.
Swan GE, McClure JB, Jack LM, Zbikowski SM, Javitz HS, Catz SL, et al. Behavioral counseling and varenicline treatment for smoking cessation. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2010;38(5):482-90.
Tzelepis F, Paul CL, Wiggers J, Walsh RA, Knight J, Duncan SL, et al. A randomised controlled trial of proactive telephone counselling on cold-called smokers' cessation rates. Tobacco Control 2011;20:40-6.
Zhu SH, Cummins SE, Wong S, Gamst AC, Tedeschi GJ, Reyes-Nocon J. The effects of a multilingual telephone quitline for Asian smokers: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of National Cancer Institute 2012;104:299-310.
Studies from Stead et al. (search period through March 2009)
Abdullah ASM, Mak YW, Loke AY, Lam TH. Smoking cessation intervention in parents of young children: a randomised controlled trial. Addiction 2005;100:1731–40.
An LC, Zhu S-H, Nelson DB, Arikian NJ, Nugent S, Partin MR, et al. Benefits of telephone care over primary care for smoking cessation. Archives of Internal Medicine 2006;166:536–42.
Aveyard P, Griffin C, Lawrence T, Cheng KK. A controlled trial of an expert system and self-help manual intervention based on the stages of change versus standard self-help materials in smoking cessation. Addiction 2003;98(3):345–54.
Borland R, Segan CJ, Livingston PM, Owen N. The effectiveness of callback counselling for smoking cessation: a randomized trial. Addiction 2001;96:881–9.
Borland R, Balmford J, Segan C, Livingston P, Owen N. The effectiveness of personalized smoking cessation strategies or callers to a Quitline service. Addiction 2003;98(6):837–46.
Borland R, Balmford J, Bishop N, Segan C, Piterman L, McKay-Brown L, et al. In-practice management versus quitline referral for enhancing smoking cessation in general practice: A cluster randomized trial. Family Practice 2008;25(5):382–9.
Boyle RG, Solberg LI, Asche SE, Maciosek MV, Boucher JL, Pronk NP. Proactive recruitment of health plan smokers into telephone counseling. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2007;9:581–9.
Brown S, Hunt G, Owen N. The effect of adding telephone contact to self-instructional smoking-cessation materials. Behavior Change 1992;9:216–22.
Chouinard MC, Robichaud-Ekstrand S. The effectiveness of a nursing inpatient smoking cessation program in individuals with cardiovascular disease. Nursing Research 2005;54(4):243–54.
Curry SJ, McBride C, Grothaus LC, Louie D, Wagner EH. A randomized trial of self-help materials, personalized feedback, and telephone counselling with nonvolunteer smokers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1995;63:1005–14.
Duffy SA, Ronis DL, Valenstein M, Lambert MT, Fowler KE, Gregory L, et al. A tailored smoking, alcohol, and depression intervention for head and neck cancer patients. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2006;15(11):2203–8.
Ebbert JO, Carr AB, Patten CA, Morris RA, Schroeder DR. Tobacco use quitline enrollment through dental practices: a pilot study. Journal of the American Dental Association 2007; 138(5):595–601.
Emmons KM, Puleo E, Park E, Gritz ER, Butterfield RM, Weeks JC, et al. Peer-delivered smoking counseling for childhood cancer survivors increases rate of cessation: The Partnership for Health Study. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2005;23:6516–23.
Fiore MC, McCarthy DE, Jackson TC, Zehner ME, Jorenby DE, Mielke M, et al. Integrating smoking cessation treatment into primary care: An effectiveness study. Preventive Medicine 2004;38(4):412–20.
Gilbert H, Sutton S. Evaluating the effectiveness of proactive telephone counselling for smoking cessation in a randomized controlled trial. Addiction 2006;101:590–8.
Halpin HA, McMenamin SB, Rideout J, Boyce-Smith G. The costs and effectiveness of different benefit designs for treating tobacco dependence: results from a randomized trial. Inquiry 2006;43(1):54–65.
Hanssen TA, Nordrehaug JE, Eide GE, Hanestad BR. Improving outcomes after myocardial infarction: a randomized controlled trial evaluating effects of a telephone follow-up intervention. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation 2007;14(3):429–37.
Hennrikus DJ, Jeffery RW, Lando HA, Murray DM, Brelje K, Davidann B, et al. The SUCCESS Project: The effect of program format and incentives on participation and cessation in worksite smoking cessation programs. American Journal of Public Health 2002;92:274–9.
Hollis JF, McAfee TA, Fellows JL, Zbikowski SM, Stark M, Riedlinger K. The effectiveness and cost effectiveness of telephone counselling and the nicotine patch in a state tobacco quitline. Tobacco Control 2007;16 Suppl 1:i53–9.
Holmes-Rovner M, Stommel M, Corser WD, Olomu A, Holtrop JS, Siddiqi A, et al. Does outpatient telephone coaching add to hospital quality improvement following hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome?. Journal of General Internal Medicine 2008;23(9):1464–70.
Joyce GF, Niaura R, Maglione M, Mongoven J, Larson-Rotter C, Coan J, et al. The effectiveness of covering smoking cessation services for medicare beneficiaries. Health Services Research 2008;43:2106–23.
Katz DA, Muehlenbruch DR, Brown RL, Fiore MC, Baker TB. Effectiveness of implementing the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality smoking cessation clinical practice guideline: a randomized, controlled trial. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2004;96(8):594–603.
Lando HA, Hellerstedt WL, Pirie PL, McGovern PG. Brief supportive telephone outreach as a recruitment and intervention strategy for smoking cessation. American Journal of Public Health 1992;82:41–6.
Lando HA, Rolnick S, Klevan D, Roski J, Cherney L, Lauger G. Telephone support as an adjunct to transdermal nicotine in smoking cessation. American Journal of Public Health 1997;87:1670–4.
Lichtenstein E, Andrews JA, Lee ME, Glasgow RE, Hampson SE. Using radon risk to motivate smoking reduction: evaluation of written materials and brief telephone counselling. Tobacco Control 2000;9:320–6.
Lichtenstein E, Boles SM, Lee ME, Hampson SE, Glasgow RE, Fellows J. Using radon risk to motivate smoking reduction II: randomized evaluation of brief telephone counseling and a targeted video. Health Education Research 2008;23(2):191–201.
Lipkus IM, Lyna PR, Rimer BK. Using tailored interventions to enhance smoking cessation among African-Americans at a community health center. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 1999; 1:77–85.
Lipkus IM, McBride CM, Pollak KI, Schwartz-Bloom RD, Tilson E, Bloom PN. A randomized trial comparing the effects of self-help materials and proactive telephone counseling on teen smoking cessation. Health Psychology 2004;23:397–406.
Macleod ZR, Charles MA, Arnaldi VC, Adams IM. Telephone counselling as an adjunct to nicotine patches in smoking cessation: a randomised controlled trial. Medical Journal of Australia 2003;179:349–52.
McBride CM, Scholes D, Grothaus LC, Curry SJ, Ludman E, Albright J. Evaluation of a minimal self-help smoking cessation intervention following cervical cancer screening. Preventive Medicine 1999;29:133–8.
McBride CM, Curry SJ, Lando HA, Pirie PL, Grothaus LC, Nelson JC. Prevention of relapse in women who quit smoking during pregnancy. American Journal of Public Health 1999; 89:706–11.
McBride CM, Baucom DH, Peterson BL, Pollak KI, Palmer C, Westman E, et al. Prenatal and postpartum smoking abstinence – A partner-assisted approach. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2004;27:232–8.
McClure JB, Westbrook E, Curry SJ, Wetter DW. Proactive, motivationally enhanced smoking cessation counseling among women with elevated cervical cancer risk. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2005;7:881–9.
McFall SL, Michener A, Rubin D, Flay BR, Mermelstein RJ, Burton D, et al. The effects and use of maintenance newsletters in a smoking cessation intervention. Addictive Behaviors 1993;18:151–8.
Metz K, Floter S, Kroger C, Donath C, Piontek D, Gradl S. Telephone booster sessions for optimizing smoking cessation for patients in rehabilitation centers. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2007;9(8):853–63.
Miguez MC, Vazquez FL, Becona E. Effectiveness of telephone contact as an adjunct to a self-help program for smoking cessation: a randomized controlled trial in Spanish smokers. Addictive Behaviors 2002;27:139–44.
Miguez MC, Becona E. Evaluating the effectiveness of a single telephone contact as an adjunct to a self-help intervention for smoking cessation in a randomized controlled trial. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2008;10(1):129–35.
Miller NH, Smith PM, DeBusk RF, Sobel DS, Taylor CB. Smoking cessation in hospitalized patients - Results of a randomized trial. Archives of Internal Medicine 1997;157:409–15.
Ockene JK, Kristeller J, Goldberg R, Amick TL, Pekow PS, Hosmer D, et al. Increasing the efficacy of physician-delivered smoking interventions: a randomized clinical trial. Journal of General Internal Medicine 1991;6:1–8.
Orleans CT, Schoenbach VJ, Wagner EH, Quade D, Salmon MA, Pearson DC, et al. Self-help quit smoking interventions: effects of self-help materials, social support instructions, and telephone counseling. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1991;59:439–48.
Orleans CT, Boyd NR, Bingler R, Sutton C, Fairclough D, Heller D, et al. A self-help intervention for African American smokers: tailoring cancer information service counseling for a special population. Preventive Medicine 1998;27(5):S61–S70.
Osinubi OY, Moline J, Rovner E, Sinha S, Perez-Lugo M, Demissie K, et al. A pilot study of telephone-based smoking cessation intervention in asbestos workers. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2003;45(5):569–74.
Ossip Klein DJ, Giovino GA, Megahed N, Black PM, Emont SL, Stiggins J, et al. Effects of a smoker's hotline: results of a 10-county self-help trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1991;59:325–32.
Ossip Klein DJ, Carosella AM, Krusch DA. Self-help interventions for older smokers. Tobacco Control 1997;6:188–93.
Prochaska JO, Di Clemente CC, Velicer WF, Rossi JS. Standardized, individualized, interactive, and personalized self- help programs for smoking cessation. Health Psychology 1993;12(5):399–405.
Prochaska JO, Velicer WF, Fava JL, Ruggiero L, Laforge RG, Rossi JS, et al. Counselor and stimulus control enhancements of a stage-matched expert system intervention for smokers in a managed care setting. Preventive Medicine 2001;32(1):23–32.
Rabius V, McAlister AL, Geiger A, Huang P, Todd R. Telephone counseling increases cessation rates among young adult smokers. Health Psychology 2004;23(5):539–41.
Rabius V, Pike KJ, Hunter J, Wiatrek D, McAlister AL. Effects of frequency and duration in telephone counselling for smoking cessation. Tobacco Control 2007;16 Suppl 1:i71–4.
Reid RD, Pipe A, Dafoe WA. Is telephone counselling a useful addition to physician advice and nicotine replacement therapy in helping patients to stop smoking? A randomized controlled trial. Canadian Medical Association Journal 1999;160:1577–81.
Reid RD, Pipe AL, Quinlan B, Oda J. Interactive voice response telephony to promote smoking cessation in patients with heart disease: A pilot study. Patient Education & Counseling 2007;66(3):319–26.
Rigotti NA, Park ER, Regan S, Chang Y, Perry K, Loudin B, et al. Efficacy of telephone counseling for pregnant smokers: a randomized controlled trial. Obstetrics & Gynecology 2006;108:83–92.
Rimer BK, Orleans CT, Fleisher L, Cristinzio S. Does tailoring matter? The impact of a tailored guide on ratings and short-term smoking-related outcomes for older smokers. Health Education Research 1994;9:69–84.
Roski J, Jeddeloh R, An L, Lando H, Hannan P, Hall C, et al. The impact of financial incentives and a patient registry on preventive care quality: increasing provider adherence to evidence-based smoking cessation practice guidelines. Preventive Medicine 2003;36(3):291–9.
Smith PM, Cameron R, McDonald PW, Kawash B, Madill C, Brown KS. Telephone counseling for population-based smoking cessation. American Journal of Health Behavior 2004;28(3):231–41.
Solomon LJ, Scharoun GM, Flynn BS, Secker-Walker RH, Sepinwall D. Free nicotine patches plus proactive telephone peer support to help low-income women stop smoking. Preventive Medicine 2000;31:68–74.
Solomon LJ, Marcy TW, Howe KD, Skelly JM, Reinier K, Flynn BS. Does extended proactive telephone support increase smoking cessation among low-income women using nicotine patches? Preventive Medicine 2005;40(3):306–13.
Sood A, Andoh J, Verhulst S, Ganesh M, Edson B, Hopkins-Price P. "Real-World" Effectiveness of Reactive Telephone Counseling for Smoking Cessation: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Chest 2009; 136(5):1229-36.
Sorensen G, Barbeau EM, Stoddard AM, Hunt MK, Goldman R, Smith A, et al. Tools for health: the efficacy of a tailored intervention targeted for construction laborers. Cancer Causes & Control 2007;18(1):51–9.
Stotts AL, Diclemente CC, Dolan-Mullen P. One-to-one – A motivational intervention for resistant pregnant smokers. Addictive Behaviors 2002; 27(2):275–92.
Swan GE, McAfee T, Curry SJ, Jack LM, Javitz H, Dacey S, et al. Effectiveness of bupropion sustained release for smoking cessation in a health care setting: a randomized trial. Archives of Internal Medicine 2003;163:2337–44.
Thompson B, Kinne S, Lewis FM, Wooldridge JA. Randomized telephone smoking-intervention trial initially directed at blue-collar workers. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Monographs 1993;14:105–12.
Velicer WF, Friedman RH, Fava JL, Gulliver SB, Keller S, Sun X, et al. Evaluating nicotine replacement therapy and stage-based therapies in a population-based effectiveness trial. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology 2006;74(6):1162–72.
Young JM, Girgis S, Bruce TA, Hobbs M, Ward JE. Acceptability and effectiveness of opportunistic referral of smokers to telephone cessation advice from a nurse: a randomised trial in Australian general practice. BMC Family Practice 2008;9:16.
Zhu SH, Stretch V, Balabanis M, Rosbrook BP, Sadler G, Pierce JP. Telephone counseling for smoking cessation - effects of singlesession and multiple-session interventions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1996;64:202–11.
Zhu SH, Anderson CM, Tedeschi GJ, Rosbrook B, Johnson CE, Byrd M, et al. Evidence of real-world effectiveness of a telephone quitline for smokers. New England Journal of Medicine 2002;347(14):1087–93.
Updated Search Period (January 2000-January 2012)
An LC, Schillo BA, Kavanaugh AM, Lachter RB, Luxenberg MG, Wendling AH, et al. Increased reach and effectiveness of a statewide tobacco quitline after the addition of access to free nicotine replacement therapy. Tobacco Control 2006;15(4):286-93.
Ayadi MF, Adams EK, Melvin CL, Rivera CC, Gaffney CA, Pike J, et al. Costs of a smoking cessation counseling intervention for pregnant women: Comparison of three settings. Public Health Reports 2006;121(2):120-6.
Bauer JE, Carlin-Menter SM, Celestino PB, Hyland A, Cummings KM. Giving away free nicotine medications and a cigarette substitute (Better Quit (R)) to promote calls to a quitline. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 2006;12(1):60-7.
Bentz CJ, Bayley KB, Bonin KE, Fleming L, Hollis JF, McAfee T. The feasibility of connecting physician offices to a state-level tobacco quit line. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2006;30(1):31-7.
Burns EK, Levinson AH. Reaching Spanish-speaking smokers: state-level evidence of untapped potential for QuitLine utilization. Am J Public Health 2010 April; 100(Suppl 1): S165–S710.
Cummings KM, Fix B, Celestino P, Carlin-Menter S, O'Connor R, Hyland A. Reach, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of free nicotine medication giveaway programs. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 2006;12(1):37-43.
Cummings KM, Hyland A, Carlin-Menter S, Mahoney MC, Willett J, Juster HR. Costs of giving out free nicotine patches through a telephone quit line. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 2011;17(3):E16-23.
Deprey M, McAfee T, Bush T, McClure JB, Zbikowski S, Mahoney L. Using free patches to improve reach of the oregon quit line. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 2009;15(5):401-8.
Ellerbeck EF, Mahnken JD, Cupertino AP, Cox LS, Greiner KA, Mussulman LM, et al. Impact of varying levels of disease management on smoking cessation: a randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 2009;150(7):437-46.
Farrelly MC, Hussin A, Bauer UE. Effectiveness and cost effectiveness of television, radio and print advertisements in promoting the New York smokers' quitline. Tobacco Control 2007;16(Suppl 1):i21-3.
Fellows JL, Bush T, McAfee T, Dickerson J. Cost effectiveness of the Oregon quitline "free patch initiative". Tobacco Control 2007;16(Suppl 1):i47-52.
Feenstra TL, Hamberg-van Reenen HH, Hoogenveen RT, Rutten-van Mölken MP. Cost-effectiveness of face-to-face smoking cessation interventions: a dynamic modeling study. Value in Health 2005;8(3):178-90.
Hollis JF, McAfee TA, Fellows JL, Zbikowski SM, Stark M, Riedlinger K. The effectiveness and cost effectiveness of telephone counselling and the nicotine patch in a state tobacco quitline. Tobacco Control 2007;16(Suppl 1):i53-9.
Keller PA, Bailey LA, Koss KJ, Baker TB, Fiore MC. Organization, financing, promotion, and cost of US quitlines, 2004. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2007;32(1):32-7.
Maher JE, Rohde K, Pizacani B, Dent C, Stark MJ, Dilley JA, et al. Does free nicotine replacement therapy for young adults prompt them to call a quitline? Tobacco Control 2007;16(5):357-8.
McAlister A, Rabius V, Geiger A, Glynn T, Huang P, Todd R. Telephone assistance for smoking cessation: one year cost effectiveness estimations. Tobacco Control 2004;13(1):85-6.
Miller N, Frieden TR, Liu SY, Matte TD, Mastashari F, Deitcher DR, et al. Effectiveness of a large-scale distribution programme of free nicotine patches: a prospective evaluation. Lancet 2005;35(9474):1849–54.
Mosbaek CH, Austin DF, Stark MJ, Lambert LC. The association between advertising and calls to a tobacco quitline. Tobacco Control 2007;16(Suppl 1):i24-9.
O'Dea D. An economic evaluation of the Quitline nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) service. Wellington: Ministry of Health; 2004.
Parker DR, Windsor RA, Roberts MB, Hecht J, Hardy NV, Strolla LO, et al. Feasibility, cost, and cost-effectiveness of a telephone-based motivational intervention for underserved pregnant smokers. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2007;9(10):1043-51.
Saul JE, Lien R, Schillo B, Kavanaugh A, Wendling A, Luxenberg M, et al. Outcomes and Cost-Effectiveness of Two Nicotine Replacement Treatment Delivery Models for a Tobacco Quitline. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2011;8:1547-9.
Shearer J, Shanahan M. Cost effectiveness analysis of smoking cessation interventions. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 2006;30(5):428-34.
Swartz SH, Cowan TM, Klayman JE, Welton MT, Leonard BA. Use and effectiveness of tobacco telephone counseling and nicotine therapy in Maine. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2005; 29(4):288–94.
Tomson T, Helgason AR, Gilljam H. Quitline in smoking cessation: a cost-effectiveness analysis. International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care 2004;20(4):469-74.
Tzelepis F, Paul CL, Walsh RA, Wiggers J, Knight J, Lecathelinais C, et al. Telephone recruitment into a randomized controlled trial of quitline support. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2009;37(4):324.
Wilson N, Grigg M, Graham L, Cameron G. The effectiveness of television advertising campaigns on generating calls to a national Quitline by Māori. Tobacco Control 2005;14(4):284-6.