Analytic Framework [PDF – 3.1 MB] – see Figure 1 on page 76
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The number of studies and publications do not always correspond (e.g., a publication may include several studies or one study may be explained in several publications).
Avila P, Hovell MF. Physical activity training for weight loss in Latinas: a controlled trial. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1994;18:476–82.
Gill AA, Veigl VL, Shuster JJ, Notelovitz M. A well woman’s health maintenance study comparing physical fitness and group support programs. Occup Therapy J Res 1984;4:286–308.
Jason LA, Greiner BJ, Naylor K, Johnson SP, Van Egeren L. A large-scale, short-term, media-based weight loss program. Am J Health Promot 1991;5:432–7.
King AC, Frederiksen LW. Low-cost strategies for increasing exercise behavior: relapse preparation training and social support. Behav Modif 1984;8:3–21.
King AC, Taylor CB, Haskell WL, Debusk RF. Strategies for increasing early adherence to and long-term maintenance of home-based training in healthy middle-aged men and women. Am J Cardiol 1988;61:628–32.
Kriska AM, Bayles C, Cauley JA, LaPorte RE, Sandler RB, Pambianco G. A randomized exercise trial in older women: increased activity over two years and the factors associated with compliance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1986;18:557–62.
Lombard DN, Lombard TN, Winett RA. Walking to meet health guidelines: the effect of prompting frequency and prompt structure. Health Psychol 1995;14:164–70.
Simmons D, Fleming C, Voyle J, Fou F, Feo S, Gatland B. A pilot urban church-based programme to reduce risk factors for diabetes among Western Samoans in New Zealand.Diabet Med 1998;15:136–42.
Wankel LM, Yardley JK, Graham J. The effects of motivational interventions upon the exercise adherence of high and low self-motivated adults. Can J Appl Sport Sci 1985;10:147–56.
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The search for evidence started with seven computerized databases (MEDLINE, Sportdiscus, Psychlnfo, Transportation Research Information Services [TRIS], Enviroline, Sociological Abstracts, and Social SciSearch) and included reviews of reference lists and consultations with experts in the field. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they:
- Were published in English during 1980-2000
- Were conducted in an Established Market Economy*
- Assessed a behavioral intervention primarily focused on physical activity
- Were primary investigations of interventions selected for evaluation rather than, for example, guidelines or reviews
- Evaluated outcomes selected for review; and
- Compared outcomes among groups of persons exposed to the intervention with outcomes among groups of persons not exposed or less exposed to the intervention (whether the study design included a concurrent or before-and-after comparison)
* Established Market Economies as defined by the World Bank are Andorra, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bermuda, Canada, Channel Islands, Denmark, Faeroe Islands, Finland, France, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Greenland, Holy See, Iceland, Ireland, Isle of Man, Italy, Japan, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Monaco, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, San Marino, Spain, St. Pierre and Miquelon, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
The databases MEDLINE, Transportation Research Information Services (TRIS), Combined Health Information Database (CHID), ECONLIT, PsychInfo, Sociological Abstracts, Sociofile, Social SciSearch, and Enviroline were searched for the period 1980–2000. In addition, the references listed in all retrieved articles were reviewed and experts were consulted. Most of the included studies were either government reports or were published in journals. To be included in the review a study had to:
- Be a primary study rather than, for example, a guideline or review
- Take place in an Established Market Economy
- Be written in English
- Meet the team’s definitions of the recommended and strongly recommended interventions
- Use economic analytical methods such as cost analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-utility, or cost-benefit analysis; and
- Itemize program costs and costs of illness or injury averted
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