The number of studies and publications do not always correspond (e.g., a publication may include several studies or one study may be explained in several publications).
Blair SN, Smith M, Collingwood TR, Reynolds R, Prentice MC, Sterling CL. Health promotion for educators: impact on absenteeism. Prev Med 1986;15:166–75.
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Chen A. A home-based behavioral intervention to promote walking in sedentary ethnic minority women: project WALK. Womens Health 1998; 4:19–39.
Coleman KJ, Raynor HR, Mueller DM, Cerny FJ, Dorn JM, Epstein LH. Providing sedentary adults with choices for meeting their walking goals. Prev Med 1999;28:510–9.
Dunn AL, Marcus BH, Kampert JB, Garcia ME, Kohl HW 3rd, Blair SN. Comparison of lifestyle and structured interventions to increase physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness: a randomized trial. JAMA 1999;281:327–34.
Foreyt JP, Goodrick GK, Reeves RS, Raynaud AS. Response of free-living adults to behavioral treatment of obesity: attrition and compliance to exercise. Behav Ther 1993;24:659–69.
Jarvis KL, Friedman RH, Heeren T, Cullinane PM. Older women and physical activity: using the telephone to walk. Womens Health Issues 1997;7:24–9.
Jeffery RW, Wing RR, Thorson C, Burton LR. Use of personal trainers and financial incentives to increase exercise in a behavioral weight-loss program. J Consult Clin Psychol1998;66:777–83.
Jette A, Lachman M, Giorgetti M, et al. Exercise-It’s Never Too Late: The Strong-for-Life Program. Am J Public Health 1999;89:66–72.
Kanders BS, Ullmann-Joy P, Foreyt JP, et al. The black American lifestyle intervention (BALI): the design of a weight loss program for working-class African-American women. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:310–2.
King A, Haskell WL, Taylor CB, Kraemer HC, DeBusk RF. Group vs home based exercise training in healthy older men and women. JAMA 1991;266:1535–42.
Marcus B, Emmons KM, Simkin-Silverman LR, et al. Evaluation of motivationally tailored vs standard self-help physical activity interventions at the workplace. Am J Health Promot1998;12:246–53.
Mayer JA, Jermanovich A, Wright BL, Elder JP, Drew JA, Williams SJ. Changes in health behaviors of older adults: the San Diego Medicare Preventive Health Project. Prev Med1994;23:127–33.
McAuley E, Courneya KS, Rudolph DL, Lox CL. Enhancing exercise adherence in middle-aged males and females. Prev Med 1994;23:498–506.
Noland MP. The effects of self-monitoring and reinforcement on exercise adherence. Res Q Exerc Sport 1989;60:216–24.
Owen N, Lee C, Naccarella L, Haag K. Exercise by mail: a mediated behavior-change program for aerobic exercise. J Sport Psychol 1987;9:346–57.
Peterson TR, Aldana SG. Improving exercise behavior: an application of the stages of change model in a worksite setting. Am J Health Promot 1999;13:229–32.
Wing RR, Jeffery RW, Pronk N, Hellerstedt WL. Effects of a personal trainer and financial incentives on exercise adherence in overweight women in a behavioral weight loss program.Obes Res 1996;4:457–62.
Sevick MA, Dunn AL, Morrow MS, Marcus BH, Chen GJ, Blair SN. Cost-effectiveness of lifestyle and structured exercise interventions in sedentary adults. Results of project ACTIVE. Am J Prev Med 2000;19:1–8.
The search for evidence started with seven computerized databases (MEDLINE, Sportdiscus, Psychlnfo, Transportation Research Information Services [TRIS], Enviroline, Sociological Abstracts, and Social SciSearch) and included reviews of reference lists and consultations with experts in the field. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they:
- Were published in English during 1980-2000
- Were conducted in an Established Market Economy*
- Assessed a behavioral intervention primarily focused on physical activity
- Were primary investigations of interventions selected for evaluation rather than, for example, guidelines or reviews
- Evaluated outcomes selected for review; and
- Compared outcomes among groups of persons exposed to the intervention with outcomes among groups of persons not exposed or less exposed to the intervention (whether the study design included a concurrent or before-and-after comparison)
* Established Market Economies as defined by the World Bank are Andorra, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bermuda, Canada, Channel Islands, Denmark, Faeroe Islands, Finland, France, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Greenland, Holy See, Iceland, Ireland, Isle of Man, Italy, Japan, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Monaco, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, San Marino, Spain, St. Pierre and Miquelon, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
The databases MEDLINE, Transportation Research Information Services (TRIS), Combined Health Information Database (CHID), ECONLIT, PsychInfo, Sociological Abstracts, Sociofile, Social SciSearch, and Enviroline were searched for the period 1980–2000. In addition, the references listed in all retrieved articles were reviewed and experts were consulted. Most of the included studies were either government reports or were published in journals. To be included in the review a study had to:
- Be a primary study rather than, for example, a guideline or review
- Take place in an Established Market Economy
- Be written in English
- Meet the team’s definitions of the recommended and strongly recommended interventions
- Use economic analytical methods such as cost analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-utility, or cost-benefit analysis; and
- Itemize program costs and costs of illness or injury averted