Analytic Framework [PDF – 332 KB]
When starting an effectiveness review, the systematic review team develops an analytic framework. The analytic framework illustrates how the intervention approach is thought to affect public health. It guides the search for evidence and may be used to summarize the evidence collected. The analytic framework often includes intermediate outcomes, potential effect modifiers, potential harms, and potential additional benefits.
Summary Evidence Table [PDF – 80 KB]
Contains evidence from reviews of technology-supported multicomponent coaching or counseling interventions to reduce weight and maintain weight loss
The number of studies and publications do not always correspond (e.g., a publication may include several studies or one study may be explained in several publications).
Gold BC, Burke S, Pintauro S, Buzzell P, Harvey-Berino J. Weight loss on the web: a pilot study comparing a structured behavioral intervention to a commercial program. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2007;15(1):155-64.
Harvey-Berino J, Pintauro S, Buzzell P, DiGiulio M, Casey Gold B, Moldovan C, Ramirez E. Does using the Internet facilitate the maintenance of weight loss? Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2002;26(9):1254-60.
Harvey-Berino J, Pintauro S, Buzzell P, Gold EC. Effect of internet support on the long-term maintenance of weight loss. Obes Res 2004;12(2):320-9.
Haugen HA, Tran ZV, Wyatt HR, Barry MJ, Hill JO. Using telehealth to increase participation in weight maintenance programs. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2007;15(12):3067-77.
The following outlines the search strategy for technology-supported multicomponent coaching or counseling interventions to reduce weight and maintain weight loss.
The review reflects systematic searches of four computerized databases (Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, and PsycINFO). The search combined terms related to technology (e.g., computer, Internet, videoconference) with terms related to weight, physical activity, diet outcomes, health education/promotion, and overweight. The specific search terms used are shown below.
The reference lists from search-identified studies, as well as those of prior literature reviews and systematic reviews, also were used to identify relevant articles. Experts in interventions that address obesity and/or screen time (i.e., time spent watching TV, videotapes, or DVDs; playing video or computer games; and surfing the Internet) were consulted for additional citations.
Searches were limited to literature published in English-language journals between 1966 and the June 2008. To be considered for inclusion in the review of effectiveness, studies had to (1) be primary investigations of interventions rather than guidelines or reviews, and (2) provide data on either weight-related outcomes, physical activity, or nutrition.
Studies were excluded if outcomes were collected in pregnant or post-partum populations, or the study specifically recruited patients with the following medical conditions: end stage disease (e.g., renal), cancer survivor, bulimic, anorexic, or psychiatric disorder. Also excluded were studies that focused specifically on diabetic monitoring (as opposed to nutrition, physical activity, or obesity interventions targeting people with diabetes).
- Website, Web site, Web
- Message Board, Discussion Board
- Cell phone
- Compact Disc
- Video recording, videodisc recording, videotape recording
- Digital video
- Interactive voice response
- Computer assisted instruction
- User-computer interface
- Touch screen
- Personal digital assistant, palm pilot, pocket pc
- Electronic mail, email
- Enhanced pedometer
- Health education, health promotion, health behavior
- Health knowledge, attitudes, practice
- Overweight, Body mass index, Skinfold thickness, Waist-hip ratio, BMI, Obese, Weight, Body fat
- Physical activity, Motor activity, Exercise, Physical fitness, Physical education, Training, Sports
- Diet, Nutrition, Food
- Coach, counsel
- Reminder Systems
- Provision of Information
- Computer tailored feedback
- Video games
Medline search example
- (website$ or web site$ or web$).tw.
- (message board$ or discussion board$).tw.
- cell$ phone$.mp.
- exp Compact Disks/ or (compact disc$ or compact disk$ or CD-ROM$).mp.
- (Video Recording or Videodisc Recording or videotape recording$).mp.
- digital video dis$.mp.
- digital medi$.tw.
- (interactive voice response$ or ivr).tw.
- exp Computers/
- computer-assisted instruction.mp.
- user-computer interface/
- touch screen$.tw.
- Computers, Handheld/ or personal digital assistant$.tw. or pda$.tw. or palm pilot$.tw. or pocket pc$.tw.
- exp software/ or software.tw.
- Electronic Mail/ or e-mail$.tw. or email$.tw.
- enhance$ pedometer$.tw.
- 24 and (health education/ or "health education".tw.)
- 24 and exp health promotion/
- 24 and exp health behavior/
- 24 and "Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice"/
- 24 and intervention studies/
- 24 and intervention$.mp.
- 24 and (trial$ or study or studies).mp.
- 24 and program evaluation/
- 33 and (exp overweight/ or exp obesity/ or exp body weight changes/ or body mass index/ or skinfold thickness/ or waist-hip ratio/ or bmi.tw. or obes$.tw. or body fat.tw. or overweight.mp.)
- 33 and (physical activity.tw. or motor activity/ or exercise$.mp. or physical fitness/ or "physical education and training"/ or exp sports/)
- 33 and (diet$ or nutrition$ or food$).hw,tw.
- limit 37 to (humans and english language and yr="1966 - 2008")
- 38 not (200807$ or 200808$).ed.
- from 38 keep 101
- 39 not Echocardiography.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]
- 41 not electrocardiograpy.mp.
- 42 not ekg.mp.
- 43 not mri.mp.
- 44 not magnetic resonance imaging/
- 45 not eeg.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]
- 46 not electroencephalography/
- 47 not cat scans.mp.
- 48 not Tomography, X-Ray Computed.mp.
- 49 not x-rays.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]
- 24 or (computer tailored feedback.mp. or exp video games/ or exp games, experimental/ or games.mp.)
- 51 and (health education/ or "health education".tw. or exp health promotion/ or exp health behavior/ or "Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice"/ or intervention studies/ or intervention$.mp. or trial$.mp. or study.mp. or studies.mp. or program evaluation/ or coach$.mp. or counsel$.mp. or exp directive counseling/ or exp counseling/ or track$.mp. or monitor$.mp. or exp reminder systems/ or remind$.mp. or "provision of information".tw. or exp education, professional/ or non-interactive education.mp.)
- 52 and (exp overweight/ or exp obesity/ or exp body weight changes/ or body mass index/ or skinfold thickness/ or waist-hip ratio/ or bmi.tw. or obes$.tw. or body fat.tw. or overweight.mp. or physical activity.tw. or motor activity/ or exercise$.mp. or physical fitness/ or "physical education and training"/ or exp sports/)
- 52 and (diet$ or nutrition$ or food$).hw,tw.
- 53 or 5414377
- limit 55 to (humans and english language and yr="1966 - 2008")
- 56 not (200807$ or 200808$).ed.
- 57 not ((Echocardiography or electrocardiography or ekg or ekg or mri).mp. or magnetic resonance imaging/ or eeg.mp. or electroencephalography/ or cat scans.mp. or Tomography, X-Ray Computed.mp. or x-rays.mp.)
For the economic review, the effectiveness review search was expanded to include additional databases: EconLit, SSCI, JSTOR, Google Scholar, and repositories of health economics research at selected universities and institutes, including the University of York.
The economic search combined economic-specific keywords such as cost, cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, and cost-utility with the effectiveness search terms.