Welcome to The Community Guide! Let us know what you think of the website by completing this quick survey.

Cancer Screening: Reducing Client Out-of-Pocket Costs – Cervical Cancer


What the CPSTF Found

About The Systematic Review

The CPSTF finding is based on evidence from a Community Guide systematic review published in 2008 (Baron et al., 1 study, search period 1966-2004) combined with more recent evidence (0 studies, search period 2004-2008). The systematic review was conducted on behalf of the CPSTF by a team of specialists in systematic review methods, and in research, practice, and policy related to cancer prevention and control. This finding updates and replaces the 2008 CPSTF finding on Cancer Screening: Reducing Client Out-of-Pocket Costs – Cervical Cancer pdf icon [PDF - 696 KB].

Summary of Results

One study qualified for the original systematic review; no new studies were identified for the update.

Summary of Economic Evidence

An economic review of this intervention did not find any relevant studies.


While there is insufficient evidence to determine effectiveness of this intervention in increasing screening for cervical cancer, consistently favorable results for interventions that reduce costs for breast cancer screening and several other preventive services suggest that such interventions are likely to be effective for increasing cervical cancer screening as well.

Evidence Gaps

The CPSTF identified several areas that have limited information. Additional research and evaluation could help answer the following questions and fill remaining gaps in the evidence base. (What are evidence gaps?)

The following outlines evidence gaps for reducing client out-of-pocket costs to increase breast, cervical, or colorectal cancer screening.

  • Are interventions effective for promoting colorectal cancer screening with methods other than FOBT?
  • Are interventions to promote colorectal cancer screening equally effective when addressing colorectal cancer screening more generally, as when specific to one type of test?
  • What are the incremental effects of adding intervention components to other interventions?
  • What influence do newer methods of communication (e.g., the Internet, e-mail, social media, automated interactive voice response, texting) have on intervention effectiveness?
  • What is the influence of health system factors on intervention effectiveness?

Study Characteristics

This study measured completed Pap tests.