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Increasing Appropriate Vaccination: Provider Assessment and Feedback

Provider assessment and feedback involves retrospectively evaluating the performance of providers in delivering one or more vaccinations to a client population and giving them feedback on their performance. Assessment and feedback can also involve other activities (e.g., incentives or benchmarking).

Summary of Task Force Recommendations and Findings

The Community Preventive Services Task Force recommends assessment and feedback for vaccination providers based on strong evidence of their effectiveness in improving vaccination coverage:

  • In adults and children
  • When used alone or with additional components
  • Across a range of settings and populations

Read the full Task Force Finding and Rationale Statement for details including implementation issues, possible added benefits, potential harms, and evidence gaps.


Results of the Original and Updated Systematic Reviews

The Task Force finding is based on evidence from a Community Guide systematic review published in 2000 (search period 1980-1997) combined with more recent evidence (search period 1997-2007). The systematic review was conducted on behalf of the Task Force by a team of specialists in systematic review methods, and in research, practice, and policy related to increasing appropriate vaccination. This finding updates and replaces the previous Task Force finding on Provider Assessment and Feedback (read the evidence review and Task Force finding in our library).

Previous Review (search period 1980–1997)

Fourteen studies qualified for the systematic review.

Updated Evidence (search period 1997–2007)

Nineteen studies were identified in the search period considered in this update. Of these, 16 studies with 20 study arms provided common measurements of change in vaccination coverage.

  • Median increase in vaccination coverage:
    • Overall: 9.4 percentage points (20 study arms)
    • Provider assessment and feedback alone: 11 percentage points (7 study arms)
    • Provider assessment and feedback with additional components: 5.7 percentage points (13 study arms)
  • Reviewed studies evaluated the effectiveness of provider assessment and feedback in a wide range of client and provider populations and settings.

Publication Status

Full peer-reviewed articles of this systematic review will be posted on the Community Guide website when published. Subscribe External Web Site Icon to be notified when we post these publications or other materials. See our library for previous Community Guide publications on this and other topics.



The findings and conclusions on this page are those of the Community Preventive Services Task Force and do not necessarily represent those of CDC. Task Force evidence-based recommendations are not mandates for compliance or spending. Instead, they provide information and options for decision makers and stakeholders to consider when determining which programs, services, and policies best meet the needs, preferences, available resources, and constraints of their constituents.

Sample Citation

The content of publications of the Guide to Community Preventive Services is in the public domain. Citation as to source, however, is appreciated. Sample citation: Guide to Community Preventive Services. Increasing appropriate vaccination: provider assessment and feedback. Last updated: MM/DD/YYYY.

Review completed: February 2008