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Increasing Appropriate Vaccination: Provider Assessment and Feedback

Provider assessment and feedback involves retrospectively evaluating the performance of providers in delivering one or more vaccinations to a client population and giving them feedback on their performance. Assessment and feedback can also involve other activities (e.g., incentives or benchmarking).

Summary of Task Force Recommendations and Findings

The Community Preventive Services Task Force recommends assessment and feedback for vaccination providers based on strong evidence of their effectiveness in improving vaccination coverage:

  • In adults and children
  • When used alone or with additional components
  • Across a range of settings and populations

Task Force Finding and Rationale Statement


Results of the Original and Updated Systematic Reviews

The Task Force recommendation is based on evidence from an original review (search period 1980-1997) and an updated review (search period 1997-2007). Updates of reviews are conducted to incorporate more recent evidence.

Learn more about the original review and Task Force finding in the Vaccinations to Prevent Diseases section of our publications page.

Original Review (search period 1980–1997)

Fourteen studies qualified for the systematic review.

Updated Review (search period 1997–2007)

Nineteen studies were identified in the search period considered in this update. Of these, 16 studies with 20 study arms provided common measurements of change in vaccination coverage.

  • Median increase in vaccination coverage:
    • Overall: 9.4 percentage points (20 study arms)
    • Provider assessment and feedback alone: 11 percentage points (7 study arms)
    • Provider assessment and feedback with additional components: 5.7 percentage points (13 study arms)
  • Reviewed studies evaluated the effectiveness of provider assessment and feedback in a wide range of client and provider populations and settings.

These updated results were based on a recent systematic review of available studies, by a team of specialists in systematic review methods, and experts in research, practice and policy related to vaccinations to prevent diseases.

Publication Status

Full peer-reviewed articles of this systematic review will be posted on the Community Guide website when published. Subscribe External Web Site Icon to be notified when we post these publications or other materials. See our library for previous Community Guide publications on this and other topics.



The findings and conclusions on this page are those of the Community Preventive Services Task Force and do not necessarily represent those of CDC. Task Force evidence-based recommendations are not mandates for compliance or spending. Instead, they provide information and options for decision makers and stakeholders to consider when determining which programs, services, and policies best meet the needs, preferences, available resources, and constraints of their constituents.

Sample Citation

The content of publications of the Guide to Community Preventive Services is in the public domain. Citation as to source, however, is appreciated. Sample citation: Guide to Community Preventive Services. Increasing appropriate vaccination: provider assessment and feedback (abbreviated). Last updated: MM/DD/YYYY.

Review completed: February 2008