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Increasing Appropriate Vaccination: Provider Assessment and Feedback

Task Force Finding

The Community Preventive Services Task Force recommends assessment and feedback for vaccination providers on the basis of strong evidence of effectiveness in increasing vaccination rates:

  • Among adults and children
  • When used alone or with additional interventions; and
  • Across a range of settings and populations

While there was not enough evidence to determine which characteristics of assessment and feedback contributed most to its effectiveness, various strategies have been consistently effective in a wide range of contexts.

Read the full Task Force Finding and Rationale Statement for details including implementation issues, possible added benefits, potential harms, and evidence gaps.

Intervention Definition

Provider assessment and feedback interventions both evaluate provider performance in delivering one or more vaccinations to a client population (assessment) and present providers with information about their performance (feedback). Feedback may describe the performance of a group of providers (e.g., mean performance for a practice) or an individual provider, and may involve other components such as incentives or benchmarking.

About the Systematic Review

The Task Force finding is based on evidence from a Community Guide systematic review completed in 2008 (19 studies, search period 1997–2007) combined with more recent evidence (1 study, search period 2007–February 2012). The finding updates and replaces the 2008 finding for Provider Assessment and Feedback.

This review was conducted on behalf of the Task Force by a team of specialists in systematic review methods, and in research, practice and policy related to increasing appropriate vaccination. Subscribe External Web Site Icon to be notified as new materials on this topic become available.

Supporting Materials


Jacob V, Chattopadhyay SK, Hopkins DP, Murphy Morgan J, Pitan AA, Clymer JM, the Community Preventive Services Task Force. Increasing coverage of appropriate vaccinations: a Community Guide systematic economic review. Adobe PDF File [PDF - 440 kB] Am J Prev Med 2016;50(6):797–808.

Read other Community Guide publications about Increasing Appropriate Vaccinations in our library.



The findings and conclusions on this page are those of the Community Preventive Services Task Force and do not necessarily represent those of CDC. Task Force evidence-based recommendations are not mandates for compliance or spending. Instead, they provide information and options for decision makers and stakeholders to consider when determining which programs, services, and policies best meet the needs, preferences, available resources, and constraints of their constituents.

Sample Citation

The content of publications of the Guide to Community Preventive Services is in the public domain. Citation as to source, however, is appreciated. Sample citation: Guide to Community Preventive Services. Increasing appropriate vaccination: provider assessment and feedback (abbreviated). Last updated: MM/DD/YYYY.

Review completed: March 2015