The number of studies and publications do not always correspond (e.g., a publication may include several studies or one study may be explained in several publications).
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The following outlines the search strategy used for the systematic reviews of case management interventions and disease management programs to prevent and control diabetes.
The scientific literature was searched through December 2000 by using the MEDLINE database of the National Library of Medicine (started in 1966), the Educational Resources Information Center database (ERIC, 1966), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health database (CINAHL, 1982), and Healthstar (1975).
The medical subject headings (MeSH) searched were diabetes, case management, and disease management, including all subheadings. Text word searches were performed on multiple additional terms, including care model, shared care, primary health care, medical specialties, primary, or specialist.
Abstracts were not included because they generally had insufficient information to assess the validity of the study using Community Guide criteria. Dissertations were also excluded, because the available abstracts contained insufficient information for evaluation and the full text was frequently unavailable.
Titles of articles and abstracts extracted by the search were reviewed for relevance, and if potentially relevant the full-text article was retrieved. We also reviewed the reference lists of included articles, and our consultants provided additional relevant citations.
To be included in the review, studies had to be primary investigations of interventions selected for evaluation; be conducted in Established Market Economies; provide information on one or more outcomes of interest; and meet minimum quality standards. All types of comparative study designs were included, including studies with concurrent or before-and-after comparison groups.