The number of studies and publications do not always correspond (e.g., a publication may include several studies or one study may be explained in several publications).
Aubert RE, Herman WH, Waters J, et al. Nurse case management to improve glycemic control in diabetic patients in a health maintenance organization. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1998;129:605–12.
Caravalho JY, Saylor CR. Continuum of care. An evaluation of a nurse case-managed program for children with diabetes. Pediatr Nurs 2000;26:296–300,328.
Chicoye L, Roethel CR, Hatch MH, Wesolowski W. Diabetes care management: a managed care approach. WMJ 1998;97:32–4.
Cook CB, Ziemer DC, El-Kebbi IM, et al. Diabetes in urban African-Americans. XVI. Overcoming clinical inertia improves glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1999;22:1494–500.
Davidson MB. Incorporating diabetes care into a health maintenance organization setting: a practical guide. Disease Manage Health Outcomes 1998;3:71–80.
Domurat ES. Diabetes managed care and clinical outcomes: the Harbor City, California Kaiser Permanente diabetes care system. Am J Manag Care 1999;5:1299–307.
Foulkes A, Kinmonth AL, Frost S, MacDonald D. Organized personal care—an effective choice for managing diabetes in general practice. J R Coll Gen Pract 1989;39:444–7.
Humphry J, Jameson LM, Beckham S. Overcoming social and cultural barriers to care for patients with diabetes. West J Med 1997;167:138–44.
Legorreta A, Peters A, Ossorio RC, Lopez R, Jatulis D, Davidson M. Effect of a comprehensive nurse-managed diabetes program: an HMO prospective study. Am J Manag Care 1996;2:1024–30.
O'Connor PJ, Rush WA, Peterson J, et al. Continuous quality improvement can improve glycemic control for HMO patients with diabetes. Arch Fam Med 1996;5:502–6.
Peters AL, Davidson MB, Ossorio RC. Management of patients with diabetes by nurses with support of subspecialists. HMO Pract 1995;9:8–13.
Peters AL, Davidson MB. Application of a diabetes managed care program. The feasibility of using nurses and a computer system to provide effective care. Diabetes Care 1998;21:1037–43.
Rubin RJ, Dietrich KA, Hawk AD. Clinical and economic impact of implementing a comprehensive diabetes management program in managed care. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:2635–42.
Sadur CN, Moline N, Costa M, et al. Diabetes management in a health maintenance organization. Efficacy of care management using cluster visits. Diabetes Care 1999;22:2011–7.
Sikka R, Waters J, Moore W, Sutton DR, Herman WH, Aubert RE. Renal assessment practices and the effect of nurse case management of health maintenance organization patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care 1999;22:1–6.
Weinberger M, Kirkman MS, Samsa GP, et al. A nurse-coordinated intervention for primary care patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: impact on glycemic control and health-related quality of life. J Gen Intern Med 1995;10:59–66.
Weinberger M, Oddone EZ, Henderson WG. Does increased access to primary care reduce hospital readmissions? Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group on Primary Care and Hospital Readmission. N Engl J Med 1996;334:1441–7.
Whitlock WL, Brown A, Moore K, et al. Telemedicine improved diabetic management. Mil Med 2000;165:579–84.
There is no information for this section.
The following outlines the search strategy used for the systematic reviews of case management interventions and disease management programs to prevent and control diabetes.
The scientific literature was searched through December 2000 by using the MEDLINE database of the National Library of Medicine (started in 1966), the Educational Resources Information Center database (ERIC, 1966), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health database (CINAHL, 1982), and Healthstar (1975).
The medical subject headings (MeSH) searched were diabetes, case management, and disease management, including all subheadings. Text word searches were performed on multiple additional terms, including care model, shared care, primary health care, medical specialties, primary, or specialist.
Abstracts were not included because they generally had insufficient information to assess the validity of the study using Community Guide criteria. Dissertations were also excluded, because the available abstracts contained insufficient information for evaluation and the full text was frequently unavailable.
Titles of articles and abstracts extracted by the search were reviewed for relevance, and if potentially relevant the full-text article was retrieved. We also reviewed the reference lists of included articles, and our consultants provided additional relevant citations.
To be included in the review, studies had to be primary investigations of interventions selected for evaluation; be conducted in Established Market Economies; provide information on one or more outcomes of interest; and meet minimum quality standards. All types of comparative study designs were included, including studies with concurrent or before-and-after comparison groups.
There is no information for this section.