Analytic Framework [PDF – 451 KB] – see Figure 2 on page 43
When starting an effectiveness review, the systematic review team develops an analytic framework. The analytic framework illustrates how the intervention approach is thought to affect public health. It guides the search for evidence and may be used to summarize the evidence collected. The analytic framework often includes intermediate outcomes, potential effect modifiers, potential harms, and potential additional benefits.
No studies qualified for this review.
No studies were located that attempted to evaluate the effects on school violence of zero tolerance of firearms in schools; nor did any study measure the specific effect of the Gun-Free Schools Act on firearm carrying in schools.
Electronic searches for literature were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, NTIS (National Technical Information Service), PSYCHLIT, PAIS (Public Affairs Information Service), Sociological Abstracts, NCJRS (National Criminal Justice Reference Service), CJPI (Criminal Justice Periodicals Index), Gale Group Legal Research Index, and ECONLIT. We also reviewed the references listed in all retrieved articles, and consulted with experts on the systematic review development team and elsewhere to find additional published reports of studies.
We included journal articles, governmental reports, books, and book chapters. We also reviewed several papers that were in press at the time, identified in web searches and by consultants.
Articles were considered for inclusion in the systematic review if they did the following:
- Evaluated the specified law
- Assessed at least one of the violent outcomes specified
- Were conducted in an established market economy
- Reported on a primary study rather than, for example, a guideline or review
- Compared a group of people who had been exposed to the intervention with a group of people who had not been exposed or who had been less exposed (the comparisons could be concurrent or in the same group over a period of time)
- Published between 1979 and March 2001
Vernick JS, Hepburn LM. State and federal gun laws: trends for 1970–1999. In: Cook PJ, Ludwig J, eds. Evaluating Gun Policy. Washington (DC): Brookings Institution Press, 2003:345-402.