Analytic Framework [PDF – 273 KB] - See Figure 1 on page 14
When starting an effectiveness review, the systematic review team develops an analytic framework. The analytic framework illustrates how the intervention approach is thought to affect public health. It guides the search for evidence and may be used to summarize the evidence collected. The analytic framework often includes intermediate outcomes, potential effect modifiers, potential harms, and potential additional benefits.
Summary Evidence Table [PDF – 402 KB]
Contains evidence from reviews of early childhood home visitation programs to prevent child maltreatment, intimate partner violence, violence by children participating in the program, and violence by parents (other than child maltreatment or intimate partner violence)
The number of studies and publications do not always correspond (e.g., a publication may include several studies or one study may be explained in several publications).
Armstrong KA. A treatment and education program for parents and children who are at-risk of abuse and neglect. Child Abuse Neglect 1981;5:167–75.
Barth RP. An experimental evaluation of in-home child abuse prevention services. Child Abuse Neglect 1991;15:363–75.
Brayden R, Altemeier W, Dietrich M, et al. A prospective study of secondary prevention of child maltreatment. J Pediatr 1993;122:511– 6.
Brooten D, Kumar S, Brown LP, et al. A randomized clinical trial of early hospital discharge and home follow-up of very-low-birth-weight infants. N Engl J Med 1986;315:934 –9.
Caruso Whitney GA. Early intervention for high-risk families: reflecting on a 20-year-old model. In: Albee GW, Gullotta TP, eds. Primary prevention works. Thousand Oaks CA: Sage, 1997:68–86.
Dawson P, Van Doornick WJ, Robinson JL. Effects of home-based, informal social support on child health. J Dev Behav Pediatr 1989;10:63–7.
Duggan A, Windham A, McFarlane E, et al. Hawaii’s healthy start program of home visiting for at-risk families: evaluation of family identification, family engagement, and service delivery. Pediatrics 2000;105:250 –9.
Flynn L. The adolescent parenting program: improving outcomes through mentorship. Public Health Nurs 1999;16:182–9.
Gray JD, Cutler CA, Dean JG, Kempe CH. Prediction and prevention of child abuse and neglect. J Social Issues 1979;35:127–39.
Hardy JB, Street R. Family support and parenting education in the home: an effective extension of clinic-based preventive health care services for poor children. J Pediatr 1989;115:927–31.
Honig AS, Morin C. When should programs for teen parents and babies begin? Longitudinal evaluation of a teen parents and babies program. J Primary Prev 2001;21:447–54.
Huxley P, Warner R. Primary prevention of parenting dysfunction in high risk cases. Am J Orthopsychiatry 1993;63:582– 8.
Katzev A, Pratt C, Henderson T, McGuigan W. Oregon’s Healthy Start effort: 1997–98 status report. Corvallis: Oregon State University Family Policy Program, 1999.
Kitzman H, Olds DL, Henderson Jr CR, et al. Effect of prenatal and infancy home visitation by nurses on pregnancy outcomes, childhood injuries, and repeated childbearing: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1997;278:644–52.
Larson CP. Efficacy of prenatal and postnatal home visits on child health and development.Pediatrics 1980;66:191–7.
Marcenko MO, Spence M, Samost L. Outcomes of a home visitation trial for pregnant and postpartum women at-risk for child placement. Child Youth Services Rev 1996;18:243–59.
Mulsow MH, Murry VM. Parenting on edge: economically stressed, single, African American adolescent mothers. J Fam Issues 1996;17:704 –21.
Olds DL, Eckenrode J, Henderson CR Jr, et al. Long-term effects of home visitation on maternal life course and child abuse and neglect: fifteen-year follow-up of a randomized trial. JAMA 1997;278:637– 43.
Siegel E, Bauman KE, Schaefer ES, Saunders MM, Ingram DD. Hospital and home support during infancy: impact on maternal attachment, child abuse and neglect, and health care utilization. Pediatrics 1980;66:183–90.
Velasquez J, Christensen M, Schommer B. Intensive services help prevent child abuse. Am J Maternal Child Nurs 1984;9:113–7.
Wagner MM, Clayton SL. The Parents as Teachers program: results from two demonstrations. Future Child 1999;9:91–115.
Olds DL, Henderson Jr, CR Phelps C, Kitzman H, Hanks C. Effect of prenatal and infancy nurse home visitation on government spending. Med Care 1993;31:155–74.
The following outlines the search strategy used for evidence reviews of early childhood home visitation programs to prevent child maltreatment, intimate partner violence, violence by children participating in the program, and violence by parents (other than child maltreatment or intimate partner violence).
Electronic searches for literature were conducted in Medline, EMBASE, ERIC, NTIS (National Technical Information Service), PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, NCJRS (National Criminal Justice Reference Service), and CINAHL. We also reviewed the references listed in all retrieved articles, and consulted with experts on the systematic review development team and elsewhere. We used journal papers, government reports, books, and book chapters.
The initial literature search on the topic was conducted in August 2000 and a second (update) search was conducted in July 2001. Articles were considered for inclusion in the systematic review if they had the following characteristics:
- Evaluated the specified intervention
- Published before July 2001
- Assessed at least one of the violent outcomes specified
- Conducted in an established market economy
- Primary study rather than, for example, a guideline or review
- Compared a group of people who had been exposed to the intervention with a group of people who had not been exposed or who had been less exposed (comparisons could be concurrent or in the same group over time)