Analytic Framework [PDF – 451 KB] – see Figure 2 on page 43
When starting an effectiveness review, the systematic review team develops an analytic framework. The analytic framework illustrates how the intervention approach is thought to affect public health. It guides the search for evidence and may be used to summarize the evidence collected. The analytic framework often includes intermediate outcomes, potential effect modifiers, potential harms, and potential additional benefits.
Summary Evidence Table [PDF – 54 KB]
The number of studies and publications do not always correspond (e.g., a publication may include several studies or one study may be explained in several publications).
Britt CL, Bordua DJ, Kleck G. A reassessment of the D.C. gun law: some cautionary notes on the use of interrupted time series designs for policy impact assessment. Law Society Rev 1996;30:361– 80.
Jones ED. The District of Columbia’s “Firearms Control Regulation Act of 1975”: the toughest handgun control law in the United States—or is it? Ann Am Acad Political Socia Sci 1981;455:138–49.
Kleck G, Patterson EB. The impact of gun control and gun ownership levels on violence rates.J Quantitative Criminol 1993;9:249–87.
Loftin C, McDowall D, Wiersema B, Cottey TJ. Effects of restrictive licensing of handguns on homicide and suicide in the District of Columbia. N Engl J Med 1991;325:1615–20.
McDowall D, Loftin C, Wiersema B. Using quasi-experiments to evaluate firearm laws: comment on Britt et al.’s reassessment of the D.C. gun law. Law Society Rev 1996;30:381–91.
Nicholson R, Garner A. The analysis of the Firearms Control Act of 1975: handgun control in the District of Columbia. Washington DC: U.S. Conference of Mayors, 1980.
Roth JA, Koper CS. Impacts of the 1994 Assault Weapons Ban: 1994–1996. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Justice, 1999.
Vernick JS, Webster DW, Hepburn LM. Effects of Maryland’s law banning Saturday night special handguns on crime guns. Inj Prev 1999;5:259–63.
Weil DS, Knox RC. The Maryland ban on the sale of assault pistols and high-capacity magazines: estimating the impact in Baltimore. Am J Public Health 1997;87:297– 8.
Electronic searches for literature were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, NTIS (National Technical Information Service), PSYCHLIT, PAIS (Public Affairs Information Service), Sociological Abstracts, NCJRS (National Criminal Justice Reference Service), CJPI (Criminal Justice Periodicals Index), Gale Group Legal Research Index, and ECONLIT. We also reviewed the references listed in all retrieved articles, and consulted with experts on the systematic review development team and elsewhere to find additional published reports of studies.
We included journal articles, governmental reports, books, and book chapters. We also reviewed several papers that were in press at the time, identified in web searches and by consultants.
Articles were considered for inclusion in the systematic review if they did the following:
- Evaluated the specified law
- Assessed at least one of the violent outcomes specified
- Were conducted in an established market economy
- Reported on a primary study rather than, for example, a guideline or review
- Compared a group of people who had been exposed to the intervention with a group of people who had not been exposed or who had been less exposed (the comparisons could be concurrent or in the same group over a period of time)
- Published between 1979 and March 2001
Vernick JS, Hepburn LM. State and federal gun laws: trends for 1970–1999. In: Cook PJ, Ludwig J, eds. Evaluating Gun Policy. Washington (DC): Brookings Institution Press, 2003:345-402.