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Vaccination Programs: Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) Settings Archived Review


What the CPSTF Found

About The Systematic Review

The Task Force finding is based on evidence from a Community Guide systematic review published in 2000 (4 studies, search period 1980-1997) combined with more recent evidence (12 studies, search period 1997-2009). The systematic review was conducted on behalf of the Task Force by a team of specialists in systematic review methods, and in research, practice, and policy related to increasing appropriate vaccination.

Summary of Results

Sixteen studies qualified for the review.

  • Vaccination rates: median increase of 10.5 percentage points (Interquartile Interval [IQI]: 4 to 19 percentage points; 8 studies, 10 study arms)
  • Improvements in vaccination rates were reported in studies with monthly voucher pickup requirements (5 studies).
  • Improvements in vaccination rates were reported in studies that coordinated activities between collocated WIC and health care services, or provided vaccination services on-site (4 studies).
  • One study evaluated the use of assessment and referral alone and observed no effect on vaccination rates (1 study).

Summary of Economic Evidence

Four studies qualified for the economic review; two from the previous review and two from the updated review.

  • The cost per additional fully immunized child ranged from $44 (2009 dollars) for vaccinations provided off-site via referral, to $142 (2009 dollars) for vaccinations provided by an on-site WIC nurse (3 studies). The fourth study reported only the cost of assessing the vaccination status of each child.


There are no Community Guide publications for this systematic review.