The Community Preventive Services Task Force recommends coordinated vaccination interventions in WIC settings based on strong evidence of effectiveness in increasing vaccination coverage in children. Evidence on effectiveness was considered strong based on studies in which assessment of client immunization status and referral to a vaccination provider was combined with additional interventions or with the provision of vaccinations on-site or in a collocated healthcare service. Studies included in this review combined assessment and referral with monthly voucher pickup requirements, tracking and outreach, client reminder and recall systems, or enhanced access to vaccination services.
The Task Force finds insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of assessment and referral in WIC settings when implemented alone.
Vaccination interventions in WIC settings involve activities to assess the immunization status of infants and children participating in the program, and to promote and assist efforts to obtain recommended vaccinations. At a minimum, WIC vaccination interventions involve the periodic assessment of each client’s immunization status and referral of underimmunized infants and children to a vaccination provider.
Additional WIC interventions include client reminder and recall systems or tracking and outreach efforts, and incentives to obtain recommended vaccinations (e.g., monthly voucher pickup, which requires more frequent WIC visits when clients are not up-to-date). Access can be enhanced through the provision of vaccinations in WIC settings, or through collocation and coordination of WIC programs with available healthcare services.
Read the full Task Force Finding and Rationale Statement [PDF - 158 kB] for details including implementation issues, possible added benefits, potential harms, and evidence gaps.