Welcome to The Community Guide’s new website. Comments and suggestions on the site’s look and feel are welcome: communityguide@cdc.gov.

Vaccination Programs: Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) Settings Archived Review


What the Task Force Found

About The Systematic Review

The Task Force finding is based on evidence from a Community Guide systematic review published in 2000 (4 studies, search period 1980-1997) combined with more recent evidence (12 studies, search period 1997-2009). The systematic review was conducted on behalf of the Task Force by a team of specialists in systematic review methods, and in research, practice, and policy related to increasing appropriate vaccination.

Summary of Results

Sixteen studies qualified for the review.

  • Vaccination rates: median increase of 10.5 percentage points (Interquartile Interval [IQI]: 4 to 19 percentage points; 8 studies, 10 study arms)
  • Improvements in vaccination rates were reported in studies with monthly voucher pickup requirements (5 studies).
  • Improvements in vaccination rates were reported in studies that coordinated activities between collocated WIC and health care services, or provided vaccination services on-site (4 studies).
  • One study evaluated the use of assessment and referral alone and observed no effect on vaccination rates (1 study).

Summary of Economic Evidence

Four studies qualified for the economic review; two from the previous review and two from the updated review.

  • The cost per additional fully immunized child ranged from $44 (2009 dollars) for vaccinations provided off-site via referral, to $142 (2009 dollars) for vaccinations provided by an on-site WIC nurse (3 studies). The fourth study reported only the cost of assessing the vaccination status of each child.


There are no publications for this systematic review.