Analytic Framework [PDF - 135 KB]
When starting an effectiveness review, the systematic review team develops an analytic framework. The analytic framework illustrates how the intervention approach is thought to affect public health. It guides the search for evidence and may be used to summarize the evidence collected. The analytic framework often includes intermediate outcomes, potential effect modifiers, potential harms, and potential additional benefits.
Summary Evidence Table [PDF - 67 KB]
The number of studies and publications do not always correspond (e.g., a publication may include several studies or one study may be explained in several publications).
Gemson DH, Moats HL, Watkins BX, Ganz ML, Robinson S, Healton E. Laying down the law: reducing illegal tobacco sales to minors in Central Harlem. Am J Public Health 1998;88(6):936–9.
Skretny MT, Cummings KM, Sciandra R, Marshall J. An intervention to reduce the sale of cigarettes to minors. NY State J Med 1990;90(2):54 –5.
Schofield MJ, Sanson-Fisher RW, Gulliver S. Interventions with retailers to reduce cigarette sales to minors: a randomised controlled trial. Aust N Z J Public Health 1997;21(6):590–6.
Electronic searches for literature were conducted in Medline, EconLit, and the database of the Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) in the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The review team also reviewed the references listed in all retrieved articles and consulted with subject-matter experts. All studies were published in journals. To be considered for inclusion in the review of study quality, a study had to meet the following criteria:
- Have a publication date of 1980 to January 2001
- Be a primary study rather than, for example, a guideline or review
- Take place in an established market economy a
- Be written in English
- Meet the team’s definition of the interventions
- Provide information on one or more outcomes identified in the intervention analytic framework
- Compare a group of people who had been exposed to the intervention(s) with a group of people who had not been exposed or who had been less exposed (comparisons could be concurrent or within a group over a period of time)
Initial database searches (January 1998 and August 1999) were supplemented by a focused search conducted in September 2000. Studies added after September 2000 were referred by members of the team or identified in the reference lists of retrieved articles.
a Established Market Economies as defined by the World Bank are: Andorra, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bermuda, Canada, Channel Islands, Denmark, Faeroe Islands, Finland, France, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Greenland, Holy See, Iceland, Ireland, Isle of Man, Italy, Japan, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Monaco, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, San Marino, Spain, St. Pierre and Miquelon, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States.