The number of studies and publications do not always correspond (e.g., a publication may include several studies or one study may be explained in several publications).
Sixty-one studies were included in this review, and 5 papers provided more information about included studies.
Studies Included (61)
Adams EK, Markowitz S, Kannan V, Dietz PM, Tong VT, Malarcher AM. Reducing Prenatal Smoking: The Role of State Policies. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2012;43(1):34-40.
Al-Delaimy WK, Pierce JP, Messer K, White MM, Trinidad DR, Gilpin EA. The California Tobacco Control Program's effect on adult smokers: (2) Daily cigarette consumption levels. Tobacco Control 2007(2):91-5.
Bandi P, Remington PL, Moberg DP. Progress in reducing cigarette consumption: the Wisconsin tobacco control program, 2001-2003. WMJ 2006(5):45-9.
Barnoya J, Glantz S. Association of the California tobacco control program with declines in lung cancer incidence. Cancer Causes Control 2004(7):689-95.
Biener L, Harris JE, Hamilton W. Impact of the Massachusetts tobacco control programme: population based trend analysis. BMJ 2000(7257):351-4.
CDC. Cigarette smoking before and after an excise tax increase and an antismoking campaign--Massachusetts, 1990-1996. MMWR 1996(44):966-70.
CDC. Decline in cigarette consumption following implementation of a comprehensive tobacco prevention and education program-Oregon, 1996-1998. MMWR 1999(7):140-3.
CDC. Decline in smoking prevalence-New York City, 2002-2006. MMWR 2007;56(24):604-8.
CDC. Decrease in smoking prevalence-Minnesota, 1999-2010. MMWR 2011(5):138-41.
Chattopadhyay S, Pieper DR. Does spending more on tobacco control programs make economic sense? An incremental benefit-cost analysis using panel data. Contemporary Economic Policy 2012:30(3):430-47.
Chen X, Li G, Unger J, Liu X, Johnson CA. Secular trends in adolescent never smoking from 1990 to 1999 in California: an age-period-cohort analysis. AJPH 2003;93(12):2099-104.
Ciecierski CC, Chatterji P, Chaloupka FJ, Wechsler H. Do state expenditures on tobacco control programs decrease use of tobacco products among college students? Health Economics 2011;20(3):253-72.
Cowling D, Yang J. Smoking-attributable cancer mortality in California, 1979-2005. Tobacco Control 2010;19 Suppl 1:i62-i7.
Currie L, Blackman K, Clancy L, Levy D. The effect of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths in Ireland using the IrelandSS simulation model. Tobacco Control 2013;22(e1):e25-e32.
Dilley J, Rohde K, Dent C, Boysun M, Stark M, Reid T. Effective tobacco control in Washington State: a smart investment for healthy futures. Preventing Chronic Disease 2007;4(3):A65-A.
Dilley J, Harris J, Boysun M, Reid T. Program, policy, and price interventions for tobacco control: quantifying the return on investment of a state tobacco control program. AJPH 2012;102(2):e22-e8.
Farrelly MC, Pechacek TF, Chaloupka FJ. The impact of tobacco control program expenditures on aggregate cigarette sales: 1981-2000. J Health Econ 2003(5):843-59.
Farrelly MC, Pechacek TF, Thomas KY, Nelson D. The impact of tobacco control programs on adult smoking. AJPH 2008(2):304-9.
Farrelly MC, Loomis BR, Han B, et al. A Comprehensive Examination of the Influence of State Tobacco Control Programs and Policies on Youth Smoking. AJPH 2013;103(3):549-55.
Farrelly M, Arnold K, Juster H, Allen J. Quantifying the effect of changes in state-level adult smoking rates on youth smoking. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 2014;20(2):E1-E6.
Farrelly M, Loomis B, Kuiper N, et al. Are tobacco control policies effective in reducing young adult smoking? Journal of Adolescent Health 2014;54(4):481-6.
Fichtenberg CM, Glantz SA. Association of the California Tobacco Control Program with Declines in Cigarette Consumption and Mortality from Heart Disease. New England Journal of Medicine 2000;343(24):1772-7.
Frieden TR, Mostashari F, Kerker BD, Miller N, Hajat A, Frankel M. Adult tobacco use levels after intensive tobacco control measures: New York City, 2002-2003. AJPH 2005(6):1016-23.
Germain D, Durkin S, Scollo M, Wakefield M. The long-term decline of adult tobacco use in Victoria: changes in smoking initiation and quitting over a quarter of a century of tobacco control. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 2012;36(1):17-23.
Gilpin EA, Messer K, White MM, Pierce JP. What contributed to the major decline in per capita cigarette consumption during California's comprehensive tobacco control programme? Tobacco Control 2006(4):308-16.
Jemal A, Thun M, Yu X, et al. Changes in smoking prevalence among U.S. adults by state and region: Estimates from the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey, 1992-2007. BMC Public Health 2011;11(1):512.
Kabir Z, Connolly GN, Clancy L, Jemal A, Koh HK. Reduced lung cancer deaths attributable to decreased tobacco use in Massachusetts. Cancer Causes Control 2007(8):833-8.
Kabir Z, Connolly GN, Clancy L, Koh HK, Capewell S. Coronary heart disease deaths and decreased smoking prevalence in Massachusetts, 1993-2003. AJPH 2008(8):1468-9.
Kilgore EA, Mandel-Ricci J, Johns M, et al. Making It Harder to Smoke and Easier to Quit: The Effect of 10 Years of Tobacco Control in New York City. AJPH 2014;104(6):e5-e8.
Launay M, Faou ALL, Sevilla-Dedieu C, Pitrou I, Gilbert F, Kovess-Masfety V. Prevalence of tobacco smoking in teachers following anti-smoking policies: Results from two French surveys (1999 and 2005). European Journal of Public Health 2010(2):151-6.
Levy DT, Romano E, Mumford E. The relationship of smoking cessation to sociodemographic characteristics, smoking intensity, and tobacco control policies. Nicotine Tob Res 2005(3):387-96.
Lieberman L, Diffley U, King S, et al. Local Tobacco Control: Application of the Essential Public Health Services Model in a County Health Department's Efforts to Put It Out Rockland. AJPH 2013;103(11):1942-8.
Lightwood J, Glantz S. Effect of the Arizona tobacco control program on cigarette consumption and healthcare expenditures. Soc Sci Med 2011(2):166-72.
Lightwood J, Glantz S. The effect of the California tobacco control program on smoking prevalence, cigarette consumption, and healthcare costs: 1989-2008. PLoS ONE 2013;8(2):e47145-e.
Marlow ML. Tobacco control programs and tobacco consumption. Cato Journal 2006;26:573.
Marlow ML. Do Tobacco-Control Programs Lower Tobacco Consumption?: Evidence from California. Public Finance Review 2007;35(6):689-709.
Marlow ML. Effectiveness of Massachusetts' comprehensive tobacco control program. Applied Economics 2012;44(3):373-85.
McAlister A, Morrison TC, Hu S, et al. Media and community campaign effects on adult tobacco use in Texas. J Health Commun 2004(2):95-109.
McAlister AL, Huang P, Ramirez AG. Settlement-funded tobacco control in Texas: 2000-2004 pilot project effects on cigarette smoking. Public Health Rep 2006(3):235-8.
Meshack AF, Hu S, Pallonen UE, McAlister AL, Gottlieb N, Huang P. Texas Tobacco Prevention Pilot Initiative: processes and effects. Health Educ Res 2004(6):657-68.
Messer K, Pierce JP. Changes in age trajectories of smoking experimentation during the California Tobacco Control Program. AJPH 2010(7):1298-306.
Messer K, Pierce JP, Zhu SH, et al. The California Tobacco Control Program. Tobacco Control 2007(2):85-90.
Miller LS, Max W, Sung H-Y, Rice D, Zaretsky M. Evaluation of the economic impact of California's Tobacco Control Program: a dynamic model approach. Tobacco Control 2010;19(Suppl 1):i68-i76.
Morley C, Pratte M. State-level tobacco control and adult smoking rate in the United States: an ecological analysis of structural factors. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 2013;19(6):E20-E7.
Murphy JM, Moreno SLd, Cummings KM, Hyland A, Mahoney MC. Changes in cigarette smoking, purchase patterns, and cessation-related behaviors among low-income smokers in New York State from 2002 to 2005. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 2010(4):277-84.
Pierce JP, Gilpin EA, Emery SL, et al. Has the California Tobacco Control Program Reduced Smoking? JAMA 1998:893-9.
Pierce JP, Messer K, White MM, Kealey S, Cowling DW. Forty years of faster decline in cigarette smoking in California explains current lower lung cancer rates. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2010(11):2801-10.
Pierce JP, White MM, Gilpin EA. Adolescent smoking decline during California's tobacco control programme. Tobacco Control 2005(3):207-12.
Polednak AP. Trends in death rates from tobacco-related cardiovascular diseases in selected US states differing in tobacco-control efforts. Epidemiology 2009(4):542-6.
Reid J, Hammond D, Driezen P. Socio-economic status and smoking in Canada, 1999-2006: has there been any progress on disparities in tobacco use? Canadian Journal of Public Health 2010;101(1):73-8.
Rhoads J. The effect of comprehensive state tobacco control programs on adult cigarette smoking. Journal of Health Economics 2012;31(2):393-405.
Rigotti NA, Regan S, Majchrzak NE, Knight JR, Wechsler H. Tobacco use by Massachusetts public college students: long term effect of the Massachusetts Tobacco Control Program. Tobacco Control 2002:ii20-4.
Rohrbach LA, Howard-Pitney B, Unger JB, et al. Independent evaluation of the California Tobacco Control Program: relationships between program exposure and outcomes, 1996-1998. AJPH 2002(6):975-83.
Schaap MM, Kunst AE, Leinsalu M, et al. Effect of nationwide tobacco control policies on smoking cessation in high and low educated groups in 18 European countries. Tobacco Control 2008(4):248-55.
Siegel M, Mowery PD, Pechacek TP, et al. Trends in adult cigarette smoking in California compared with the rest of the United States, 1978-1994. AJPH 2000;90(3):372-9.
Soldz S, Clark TW, Stewart E, Celebucki C, Walker DK. Decreased youth tobacco use in Massachusetts 1996 to 1999: evidence of tobacco control effectiveness. Tobacco Control 2002:ii14-9.
Soldz S, Kreiner P, Clark TW, Krakow M. Tobacco use among Massachusetts youth: is tobacco control working? Prev Med 2000(4):287-95.
Tauras JA, Chaloupka FJ, Farrelly MC, et al. State Tobacco Control Spending and Youth Smoking. AJPH 2005;95(2):338-44.
Trinidad DR, Messer K, Gilpin EA, Al-Delaimy WK, White MM, Pierce JP. The California Tobacco Control Program's effect on adult smokers: (3) Similar effects for African Americans across states. Tobacco Control 2007(2):96-100.
Weintraub JM, Hamilton WL. Trends in prevalence of current smoking, Massachusetts and states without tobacco control programmes, 1990 to 1999. Tobacco Control 2002:ii8-13.
White VM, Hayman J, Hill DJ. Can population-based tobacco-control policies change smoking behaviors of adolescents from all socio-economic groups? Findings from Australia: 1987-2005. Cancer Causes Control 2008(6):631-40.
Studies Providing Additional Information for Already Included Studies Implementation, Applicability, Generalizability (5 Studies)
CDC. Declines in lung cancer rates--California, 1988-1997. MMWR 2000;49(47):1066-9.
Coady M, Jasek J, Davis K, Kerker B, Kilgore E, Perl S. Changes in Smoking Prevalence and Number of Cigarettes Smoked Per Day Following the Implementation of a Comprehensive Tobacco Control Plan in New York City. J Urban Health 2012;89(5):802-8.
Gilpin EA, Pierce JP. The California Tobacco Control Program and potential harm reduction through reduced cigarette consumption in continuing smokers. Nicotine Tob Res 2002:S157-66.
Lightwood JM, Dinno A, Glantz SA. Effect of the California tobacco control program on personal health care expenditures. PLoS Med 2008(8):e178.
White VM, Warne CD, Spittal MJ, Durkin S, Purcell K, Wakefield MA. What impact have tobacco control policies, cigarette price and tobacco control program funding had on Australian adolescents. Addiction 2011;106:1493-502.
Included Studies - Economic Review
Carter R, Scollo M (2000) Economic evaluation of the National Tobacco Campaign. In: Hassard K, editor. Australia's National Tobacco Campaign, Evaluation Report Volume Two. Canberra: Commonwealth Department of Health and Aged Care.
Chattopadhyay S, Pieper DR (2012) Does spending more on tobacco control programs make economic sense? An incremental benefit-cost analysis using panel data. Contemporary Economic Policy 30(3): 430-47.
Cutler DM, Gruber J, Hartman RS, Landrum MB, Newhouse JP, Rosenthal MB (2002) The economic impacts of the tobacco settlement. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 21(1): 1-19.
Dilley J, Rohde K, Dent C, Boysun MJ, Stark MJ, Reid T (2007) Effective tobacco control in Washington State: a smart investment for healthy futures. Prev Chronic Dis [serial online]4(3).
Dilley JA, Harris JR, Boysun MJ, Reid TR (2012) Program, policy, and price interventions for tobacco control: quantifying the return on investment of a state tobacco control program. Am J Public Health 102(2): e22-8.
Hurley SF, Matthews JP (2008) Cost-effectiveness of the Australian National Tobacco Campaign. Tob Control 17:379-84.
Lightwood J, Glantz S (2011) Effect of the Arizona tobacco control program on cigarette consumption and healthcare expenditures. Soc Sci Med 72:166-72.
Lightwood J, Glantz SA (2013) The effect of the California tobacco control program on smoking prevalence, cigarette consumption, and healthcare costs: 1989-2008. PloS one 8(2):e47145.
Lightwood JM, Dinno A, Glantz SA (2008) Effect of the California tobacco control program on personal health care expenditures. PLoS Med 5(8): e178.
Max W, Sung HY, Lightwood J (2013) The impact of changes in tobacco control funding on healthcare expenditures in California, 2012-2016. Tob Control 22: e10-e15.
Miller LS, Max W, Sung HY, Rice D, Zaretsky M (2010) Evaluation of the economic impact of California's Tobacco Control Program: a dynamic model approach. Tob Control 19(Suppl 1): i68-i76.
Rhoads JK (2012) The effect of comprehensive state tobacco control programs on adult cigarette smoking. Journal of Health Economics 31:393-405.
The CPSTF finding is based on evidence from a systematic review (search period through August 2014). Relevant and eligible studies published prior to 2000 were identified from the Community Guide systematic review published in 2001 (Hopkins et al., search period January 1980-May 2000). More recent evidence was identified using the search strategy below and covered the period of 2000-August 2014.
The following databases were searched for English-language papers that evaluated tobacco control interventions:
- Cochrane library
- EMBASE (OVID)
- Medline (OVID)
- OSH (CDC's Office on Smoking & Health Database)
- PsycINFO (OVID)
- PubMed (NLM)
- Sociological Abstracts (ProQuest)
- Web of Science (Thomson)
The literature search covered all tobacco control interventions. For the review on comprehensive tobacco control programs, Community Guide staff screened search results twice to identify papers specific to this intervention.
Search strategies were adjusted to each database, based on controlled and uncontrolled vocabularies and search software. Following are the search strategies used in PubMed.
1. Tobacco Cessation Part 1
#1 ("quit"[title] or "quitting"[title] or "quit line"[title] or "quit lines"[title] or "quitline"[title] or "quitlines"[title] or "abstinence"[title] or "abstinent"[title] or "stop" [title] or "stopped"[title] or "stopping"[title] or "cessation"[title] or "telephone"[title] or "hotline"[title] or "hotlines"[title] or "telephone"[MeSH] or "hotlines"[MeSH])
#2 "Smoking"[MeSH] or "tobacco"[MeSH] or "tobacco, smokeless"[MeSH] or "tobacco use disorder"[MeSH] or cigar*[title] or tobacco*[title] or hookah*[title] or "hubble-bubble"[title] or "narghile"[title] or "shisha"[title] or "smokeless"[title] or "snuff"[title] or "snuffs"[title]
#3 ("waterpipe" or "waterpipes" or "water pipe" or "water pipes") and (tobacco or smoking or smoke)
#4 ("pipe" or "pipes") and (smoke or smoking or tobacco))
#5 "Tobacco use cessation"[MeSH] or "smoking cessation" or "tobacco cessation"
#6 #1 AND (#2 OR #3 OR #4)
#7 #6 OR #5
#8 #7 Filters: Publication date from 2011/01/01 to 2012/12/31; English
2. Tobacco Cessation Part 2
#1 telephone or telephones or quitline or quitlines or "quit line" or "quit lines" or helpline or helplines or "help line" or "help lines"
#3 #1 and #2
#4 #3 Filters: Publication date from 2011/01/01 to 2012/12/31; English
Combine Part 1 OR Part 2
3. Tobacco Youth Update Part 1
#1 Smoking[title] or tobacco[title] or cigar[title] or cigars[title] or cigarette[title] or cigarettes[title] or smoking/psychology[mesh] or smoking[mesh] or tobacco[mesh] or tobacco use disorder[mesh] or tobacco, smokeless[mesh]
#2 (initiation[title] or initiate[title] initiates[title] or initiated[title] or delay[title] or delays[title] or delayed[title] or uptake[title] or "take up'[title] or 'taking up" [title] or begin[title] or begins[title] or beginning[title] or beginnings[title] or causality[title] or preventive[title] or grade[title] or grader[title] graders[title] or student[title] or students[title] or preteen[title] or preteens[title] or "pre-teen" [title] or "pre-teens" [title] or development[title] or prevalence[title] or discourage[title] or discouraged[title] or religious[title] or prevention[title] or preventing[title] or prevent[title] or prevents[title] or prevented[title] or school[title] or schools[title] or middle[title] or adolescent[title] or adolescents[title] or adolescence[title] or initial[title] or start[title] or starts[title] or started[title] or starting[title] or protective[title] or causation[title] or contributing[title] or contributed[title] or contribute[title] or contributes[title] or try[title] or trying[title] or "pre-contemplating"[title]or "pre-contemplation"[title] or precontemplating[title] or precontemplation[title] or contemplate[title] or contemplated[title] or contemplating[title] or precontemplated[title] or "pre-contemplated"[title] or gateway[title] or gateways[title] or avert[title] or averts[title] or averted[title] or never[title] or genetic[title] or genetics[title] or genetically[title] or onset[title] or "never smoker" [title] or "never smokers" [title] or program[title] or programs[title] or programming[title] or intervention[title] or interventions[title])
#3 (youth[title] or youths[title] or adolescent[title] or adolescents[title] or adolescence[title] or child[title] or children[title] or kid[title] or kids[title] or gradeschool[title] or gradeschools[title] or gradeschooler[title] or gradeschoolers[title] or "grade school"[title] or "grade schools"[title] or "grade schooler"[title] or "grade schoolers"[title] or "elementary school"[title] or "elementary schooler"[title] or "elementary schoolers" [title] or "high school"[title] or "high schools"[title] or "high schooler"[title] or "high schoolers"[title] or college[title] or colleges[title] or preteen[title] or preteens[title] or "pre-teen"[title] or "pre-teens"[title] or tween[title] or tweens[title or tweenage[title] or tweenager[title] or tweenagers[title] or young[title] or youngster[title] or youngsters[title])
#4 #1 and #2 AND #3
#5 (#1 and #2) AND (infant[MeSH] OR child[MeSH] OR adolescent[MeSH])
#6 #4 OR #5
#7 #6 Filters: Publication date from 2011/01/01 to 2012/12/31; English
4. Tobacco Youth Update Part 2
#1 "tobacco use prevention"
#2 (tobacco AND "sales to minors")
#3 #1 OR #2
#4 #3 Filters: Publication date from 2011/01/01 to 2012/12/31; English
Combine PART 1 OR PART 2