Analytic Framework [PDF - 188 KB]
When starting an effectiveness review, the systematic review team develops an analytic framework. The analytic framework illustrates how the intervention approach is thought to affect public health. It guides the search for evidence and may be used to summarize the evidence collected. The analytic framework often includes intermediate outcomes, potential effect modifiers, potential harms, and potential additional benefits.
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Summary Evidence Table - Effectiveness Review [PDF - 107 KB]
Contains evidence from reviews of youth development behavioral interventions to prevent or reduce the risk of adolescent pregnancy, HIV/AIDS, or other STIs when coordinated with community service, with work or vocational training, or with sports or club participation.
Summary Evidence Table - Economic Review [PDF - 287 KB]
The number of studies and publications do not always correspond (e.g., a publication may include several studies or one study may be explained in several publications).
Allen JP, Philliber S, Herrling S, Kuperminc G. Preventing teen pregnancy and academic failure: experimental evaluation of a developmentally based approach. Child Dev 1997;64(4):729-42.
Bayne-Smith MA. Teen Incentives Program: evaluation of a health promotion model for adolescent pregnancy prevention. J Health Educ 1994;25(1):24-9.
Coyle KK, Kirby DB, Robin LE, Banspach SW, Baumler E, Glassman JR. All4You! A randomized trial of an HIV, other STDs, and pregnancy prevention intervention for alternative school students. AIDS education and prevention: official publication of the International Society for AIDS Education 2006;18:187-203.
East P, Kiernan E, Chavez G. An evaluation of California's Adolescent Sibling Pregnancy Prevention Program. Perspect Sex Reprod Health 2003;35(2):62-70.
Hahn A, Leavitt T, Aaron P. Extending the time of learning. In: Besharov DJ, editor. America's Disconnected Youth: Toward a Preventive Strategy. Washington (DC): CWLA Press and American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research;1994. p. 233-66.
Melchior, A. Summary report: national evaluation of Learn and Serve American school and community based programs. Brandeis University: Center for Human Resources 1999.
O'Donnell L, Stueve A, O'Donnell C, et al. Long-term reductions in sexual initiation and sexual activity among urban middle schoolers in the reach for health service learning program. J Adolesc Health 2002;31(1):93-100.
O'Donnell L, Stueve A, San DA et al. The effectiveness of the Reach for Health Community Youth Service learning program in reducing early and unprotected sex among urban middle school students. Am J Public Health 1999;89(2):176-81.
Philliber S, Allen JP. Life options and community service: teen outreach program. In: Miller BC, Card JJ, editors. Preventing Adolescent Pregnancy: Model Programs and evaluations. Newbury Park: Sage Publications; 1992. p. 139-55.
Schirm A, Rodriguez-Planas N, Maxfield M, Tuttle C. The Quantum Opportunity Program Demonstration: Short-Term Impacts. Washington (DC): Mathematica Policy Research, Inc.; Aug 2003.
Aos S, Lieb R, Mayfield J, Miller M, Pennucci A. Benefits and Costs of Prevention and Early Intervention Programs for Youth. Washington State Institute for Public Policy; Olympia (WA): 2004.
Key JD, Gebregziabher MG, Marsh LD, O'Rourke KM. Effectiveness of an intensive, school-based intervention for teen mothers. J Adolesc Health 2008;42(4):394-400.
The following outlines the search strategy for reviews of youth development behavioral interventions to prevent or reduce the risk of adolescent pregnancy, HIV/AIDS, or other STIs when coordinated with community service, with work or vocational training, or with sports or club participation.
To establish the evidence base the team searched eleven computerized databases from 1980 through 2008: CINAHL; MEDLINE; PsycINFO; PubMed (PubMed includes a bit more than just MEDLINE); Sociological Abstracts; Web of Science – Science Citation Index; Web of Science – Social Science Citation Index; ERIC (education literature); POPLINE (reproductive literature from Johns Hopkins); NTIS (National Technical Information Service) – source for locating US, Federal publications (including agency reports); GPO (Government Printing Office) – source for locating US, Federal publications (including agencies reports). Medical subject headings (MeSH) searched (including all subheadings) are shown below. The team also scanned bibliographies from key articles and solicited other citations from other team members and subject-matter experts. Conference abstracts were not included because, according to Community Guide criteria, they generally do not provide enough information to assess study validity and to address the research questions.
The search identified over 5000 citations whose titles and abstracts were screened for potential relevance to interventions and outcomes of interest; of these, 64 articles were retrieved for full-text review.
Search terms used in eleven electronic databases to find studies for inclusion in the systematic reviews of youth development behavioral interventions coordinated with pro-social activities.
Population Groups (Adolescents)
adolescent; adolescent health services; adolescent behavior; adolescent; adolescents; adolescence; teen; teens; teenager; teenagers; youth; young; student; students; school; college; undergraduate
Type of Study/Intervention/Program
primary prevention; program evaluation; impact studies; impact study; social change; empirical research; outcome assessment; outcome studies; outcome study; follow-up studies; intervention; education; preventive; prevention; preventing; evaluation; evaluating; promotion; program; outcome; outcomes; initiative; design; life options; youth community service; service learning; life skills; social development; youth development; youth adult partnerships; skill building
sexual behavior; risk-taking; risk reduction behavior; contraception behavior; Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; HIV infections; Sexually Transmitted Diseases; pregnancy in adolescence; sexual abstinence; (postpone or postponing or delay or delaying) and (sex or sexual or sexuality or intercourse); sexual activity; sexual acts; protected sex; sexual involvement; repeated childbearing; repeat pregnancies; parenting; cohabitation; mothers; fertility control
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