The number of studies and publications do not always correspond (e.g., a publication may include several studies or one study may be explained in several publications).
Abbott-Shim M, Lambert R, McCarty F. A comparison of school readiness outcomes for children randomly assigned to a Head Start program and the program's wait list. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk 2003;8(2):191-214.
Andrews RJ, Jargowsky PA, Kuhne K. The effects of Texas's targeted pre-kindergarten program on academic performance. Cambridge (MA): National Bureau of Economic Research; 2012.
Apps P, Mendolia S, Walker I. The impact of pre-school on adolescents' outcomes: Evidence from a recent English cohort. Economics of Education Review 2013;37:183-99.
Aughinbaugh A. Does Head Start yield long-term benefits? Journal of Human Resources 2001;36(4):641-65.
Barnett WS, Masse LN. Comparative benefit-cost analysis of the Abecedarian program and its policy implications. Economics of Education Review 2007;26(1):113-25.
Barnett WS, Frede EC, Mobasher H, Mohr P. The efficacy of public preschool programs and the relationship of program quality to efficacy. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 1988;10(1), 37–49.
Barnett WS, Jung K, Youn M, Frede EC. Abbott preschool program longitudinal effects study: Fifth grade follow-up. New Brunswick (NJ): National Institute for Early Education Research; 2013.
Barnow BS, Cain GG. A reanalysis of the effect of Head Start on cognitive development: Methodology and empirical findings. Journal of Human Resources 1977;12(2):177-97.
Burchinal MR, Lee M, Ramey C. Type of day-care and preschool intellectual development in disadvantaged children. Child Development 1989;60(1):128-37.
Campbell FA, Pungello EP, Burchinal M, Kainz K, Pan Y, Wasik BH, Barbarin OA, Sparling JJ, Ramey CT. Adult outcomes as a function of an early childhood educational program: An Abecedarian Project follow-up. Developmental Psychology 2012;48(4):1033-43.
Campbell FA, Pungello EP, Miller-Johnson S, Burchinal M, Ramey CT. The development of cognitive and academic abilities: Growth curves from an early childhood educational experiment. Developmental Psychology 2001;37(2):231-42.
Campbell FA, Ramey CT, Pungello EP, Sparling J, Miller-Johnson S. Early childhood education: Young adult outcomes from the Abecedarian project. Applied Developmental Science 2002;6(1), 42-57.
Currie J, Thomas D. Does Head Start make a difference? The American Economic Review 1995;85(3):341-64.
Currie J, Thomas D. Does Head Start help Hispanic children? Journal of Public Economics 1999; 74(2):235-62.
Deming D. Early childhood intervention and life-cycle skill development: Evidence from Head Start. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 2009;1(3):111-34.
Deutsch M, Taleporos E, Victor J. A brief synopsis of an initial enrichment program in early childhood. In S. Ryan (Ed.), A report on longitudinal evaluations of preschool programs, Volume 1: Longitudinal evaluations (pp. 49-60). Washington (DC): Office of Child Development, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare; 1974.
Early DM, Bryant DM, Pianta RC, Clifford RM, Burchinal MR, Ritchie S, Barbarin O. Are teachers' education, major, and credentials related to classroom quality and children's academic gains in pre-kindergarten? Early Childhood Research Quarterly 2006;21(2):174-95.
Early DM, Maxwell KL, Burchinal M, Alva S, Bender RH, Bryant D, Zill N. Teachers' education, classroom quality, and young children's academic skills: Results from seven studies of preschool programs. Child Development 2007;78(2):558-80.
Frede E, Jung K, Barnett SW, Figueras A. The APPLES blossom: Abbott Preschool Program Longitudinal Effects Study (APPLES) preliminary results through 2nd grade. New Brunswick (NJ): Rutgers University, National Institute for Early Education Research; 2009.
Frede E, Jung K, Barnett WS, Lamy CE, Figueras A. The Abbott Preschool Program longitudinal effects study (APPLES): Interim report. New Brunswick (NJ): Rutgers University, National Institute for Early Education Research; 2007.
Garces E, Thomas D, Currie J. Longer-term effects of Head Start. American Economic Review 2002; 92(4):999-1012.
Goodman A, Sianesi B. Early education and children's outcomes: How long do the impacts last? Fiscal Studies 2005;26(4):513-48.
Gormley Jr, WT, Gayer T. Promoting school readiness in Oklahoma: An evaluation of Tulsa's pre-K program. Journal of Human Resources 2005;40(3):533-58.
Gormley Jr, WT, Gayer T, Phillips D, Dawson B. The effects of universal pre-k on cognitive development. Developmental Psychology 2005;41(6):872-84.
Gormley Jr, WT, Phillips D, Gayer T. Preschool programs can boost school readiness [Supplemental material]. Science 2008;320:1723-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1156019.
Gormley Jr, WT, Phillips D, Newmark K, Welti K, Adelstein S. Social-emotional effects of early childhood education programs in Tulsa. Child Development 2011;82(6):2095-109.
Heckman JJ, Pinto R, Shaikh AM, Yavitz A. Inference with imperfect randomization: The case of the Perry Preschool program (Working Paper No. 16935). Cambridge (MA): National Bureau of Economic Research; 2011.
Herzog E, Newcomb CH, Cisin IH. Double deprivation: The less they have, the less they learn. In S. Ryan (Ed.), A report on longitudinal evaluations of preschool programs, Volume 1: Longitudinal evaluations (pp. 69-94). Washington (DC): Office of Child Development, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare; 1974.
Howes C, Burchinal M, Pianta R, Bryant D, Early D, Clifford R, Barbarin O. Ready to learn? Children's pre-academic achievement in pre-Kindergarten programs. Early Childhood Research Quarterly 2008;23(1):27-50.
Hustedt JT, Barnett WS, Jung K. Longitudinal effects of the Arkansas Better Chance program: Findings from kindergarten and first grade. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University, National Institute for Early Education Research; 2008.
Hustedt JT, Barnett WS, Jung K, Thomas J. The effects of the Arkansas Better Chance program on young children's school readiness. New Brunswick (NJ): Rutgers University, National Institute for Early Education Research; 2007.
Hustedt JT, Barnett WS, Jung K, Figueras-Daniel A. Continued impacts of New Mexico pre-k on children's readiness for kindergarten: Results from the third year of implementation. New Brunswick (NJ): Rutgers University, National Institute for Early Education Research; 2009.
Huston A, Gupta A, Schexnayder D. Study of early education in Texas: The relationship of pre-K attendance to 3rd grade test results. Austin (TX): University of Texas; 2012.
Jung K, Barnett WS, Hustedt JT, Francis J. Longitudinal effects of the Arkansas Better Chance program: Findings from first grade through fourth grade. New Brunswick (NJ): Rutgers University, National Institute for Early Education Research; 2013.
Karnes MB, Shwedel AM, Williams MB. A comparison of five approaches for educating young children from low-income homes. In The Consortium for Longitudinal Studies (Contributors), As the twig is bent . . .: Lasting effects of preschool (pp. 133-169). Hillsdale (NJ): Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.; 1983.
Keys TD, Farkas G, Burchinal MR, Duncan GJ, Vandell DL, Li W, Ruzek EA, Howes C. Preschool center quality and school readiness: Quality effects and variation by demographic and child characteristics. Child Development 2013;84(4):1171-90.
Lee VE, Brooks-Gunn J, Schnur E. Does Head Start work?: A 1-year follow-up comparison of disadvantaged children attending Head Start, no preschool, and other preschool programs. Developmental Psychology 1988;24(2):210-22.
Lee VE, Brooks-Gunn J, Schnur E, Liaw FR. Are Head Start effects sustained? A longitudinal follow-up comparison of disadvantaged children attending Head Start, no preschool, and other preschool programs. Child Development 1990;61(2):495-507.
Lipsey MW, Hofer KG, Dong N, Farran DC, Bilbrey C. Evaluation of the Tennessee voluntary prekindergarten program: End of pre-K results from the randomized control trial. Nashville (TN): Vanderbilt University, Peabody Research Institute; 2013.
Loeb S, Bridges M, Bassok D, Fuller B, Rumberger RW. How much is too much? The influence of preschool centers on children's social and cognitive development. Economics of Education Review 2007;26(1):52-66.
Magnuson KA, Ruhm C, Waldfogel J. Does prekindergarten improve school preparation and performance? Economics of Education Review 2007;26(1):33-51.
Magnuson KA, Ruhm C, Waldfogel J. The persistence of preschool effect: Do subsequent classroom experiences matter?. Early Childhood Research Quarterly 2007;22(1):18-38.
Malofeeva E, Daniel-Echols M, Xiang Z. Findings from the Michigan School Readiness Program 6 to 8 follow up study. Ypsilanti (MI): High/Scope Educational Research Foundation; 2007.
Mashburn AJ. Quality of social and physical environments in preschools and children's development of academic, language, and literacy skills. Applied Developmental Science 2008;12(3):113-27.
Mashburn AJ, Pianta RC, Hamre BK, Downer JT, Barbarin OA, et al. Measures of classroom quality in prekindergarten and children's development of academic, language, and social skills. Child Development 2008;79(3):732-49.
Peisner-Feinberg ES, Schaaf JM. Long-term effects of the North Carolina More at Four pre-kindergarten program: Children's reading and math skills at third grade. Chapel Hill (NC): University of North Carolina, FPG Child Development Institute; 2010.
Peisner-Feinberg ES, Schaaf JM. Evaluation of the North Carolina More at Four Pre-Kindergarten Program. Chapel Hill (NC): University of North Carolina, FPG Child Development Institute; 2011.
Puma M, Bell S, Cook R, Heid C, Broene P, et al. Third Grade Follow-Up to the Head Start Impact Study: Final Report (OPRE Report 2012-45). Washington (DC): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2012.
Puma M, Bell S, Cook R, Heid C, Shapiro G, et al. Head Start impact study: Final report. Washington (DC): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2010.
Quay LC, McMurrain MK, Minore DA, Cook L, Steele DC. The longitudinal evaluation of Georgia's prekindergarten program: Results from the third year. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Atlanta (GA); 1996.
Reynolds AJ, Temple JA, White BA, Ou SR, Robertson DL. Age-26 cost-benefit analysis of the child-parent center early education program. Child Development 2011;82(1):379-404.
Reynolds AJ, Temple JA. Quasi-experimental estimates of the effects of a preschool intervention. Evaluation Review 1995;19(4):347-73.
Roy A. Evaluation of the Head Start Program: Additional evidence from the NLSCM79 data (Doctoral dissertation, University at Albany, State University of New York); 2003.
Schweinhart LJ, Barnes HV, Weikart DP. Significant benefits: The High/Scope Perry Preschool Study through age 27. Ypsilanti (MI): High/Scope Press; 1993.
Schweinhart LJ, Montie J, Xiang Z, Barnett WS, Belfield CR, Nores M. Lifetime effects: The High/Scope Perry preschool study through age 40. Ypsilanti (MI): High/Scope Press; 2005.
Schweinhart L, Xiang Z, Daniel-Echols M, Browning K, Wakabayashi T. Michigan Great Start Readiness Program evaluation 2012: High school graduation and retention findings. Ypsilanti (MI): High/Scope Educational Research Foundation; 2012.
Sontag M, Sella AP, Thorndike RL. The effect of Head Start training on the cognitive growth of disadvantaged children. Journal of Educational Research 1969;62(9):387-9.
Vance BJ. The effect of preschool group experience on various language and social skills in disadvantaged children: Final Report. Stanford (CA): Stanford University; 1967.
Wasik BH, Ramey CT, Bryant DM, Sparling JJ. A longitudinal study of two early intervention strategies: Project CARE. Child Development 1990;61(6):1682-896.
Weiland C, Yoshikawa H. Impacts of a prekindergarten program on children' mathematics, language, literacy, executive function, and emotional skills. Child Development 2013;84(6):2112-130.
Wong VC, Cook TD, Barnett WS, Jung K. An effectiveness-based evaluation of five state pre-kindergarten programs. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 2008;27(1):122-54.
Xiang Z, Schweinhart LJ. Effects five years later: The Michigan School Readiness Program evaluation through age 10. Ypsilanti (MI): High/Scope Educational Research Foundation; 2002.
Zhai F, Brooks-Gunn J, Waldfogel J. Head start and urban children's school readiness: A birth cohort study in 18 cities. Developmental Psychology 2011;47(1):134-52.
Zigler E, Abelson WD, Trickett PK, Seitz V. Is an intervention program necessary in order to improve economically disadvantaged children's IQ scores? Child Development 1982;53(2):340-8.
Barnett WS, Masse LN. Comparative benefit-cost analysis of the Abecedarian program and its policy implications. Economics of Education Review 2007;26:113–25.
Bartik TJ, Gormley W, Adelstein S. Earnings benefits of Tulsa's pre-K program for different income groups. Economics of Education Review 2012;31:1143-61.
Cascio EU, Schanzenbach DW. The impacts of expanding access to high-quality preschool education. National Bureau of Economic Research 2013;w19735.
Duncan GJ, Ludwig J, Magnuson K. Child development. In: Targeting Investment in Children: Fighting Poverty When Resources Are Limited. University of Chicago Press (IL);2010:27-58.
Heckman JJ, Moon SH, Pinto R, Savelyev P, Yavitz A. The rate of return to the HighScope Perry Preschool Program. Journal of Public Economics 2010;94:114-28.
Kay N, Pennucci A. Early childhood education for low-income students: a review of the evidence and benefit-cost analysis. (Doc. No. 14-01-2201). Washington State Institute for Public Policy, Olympia (WA);2014.
Reynolds AJ, Temple JA, White BAB, Ou SR, Robertson DL. Age 26 cost–benefit analysis of the child-parent center early education program. Child Development 2011;82:379–404. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01563.x
The White House. The Economics of Early Childhood Investments. Executive Office of the President of the United States, Washington (DC): 2014.
Washington State Institute for Public Policy (Extended work).National estimates for state and district and federal Head Start early childhood education programs. Author (WA): 2015.