The number of studies and publications do not always correspond (e.g., a publication may include several studies or one study may be explained in several publications).
Barnett WS, Frede EC, Mobasher H, Mohr P. The efficacy of public preschool programs and the relationship of program quality to efficacy. Educ Eval Policy Anal 1987;10:37–49.
Bee CK. A longitudinal study to determine if Head Start has lasting effects on school achievement. Unpublished doctoral dissertation: University of South Dakota, 1981.
Berrueta-Clement JR, Schweinhart LJ, Barnett WS, Epstein AS, Weikart DP. Changed lives: the effects of the Perry Preschool Program on youths through age 19. Ypsilanti, MI: High/Scope Press, 1984.
Bryant D, Bernier K, Taylor K, Maxwell K. The effects of Smart Start child care on kindergarten entry skills. North Carolina University, 1998. ERIC Document No. ED 423 068.
Campbell FA, Ramey CT. Effects of early intervention on intellectual and academic achievement: a follow-up study of children from low-income families. Child Dev 1994;65:684–98.
Campbell FA, Ramey CT. Cognitive and school outcomes for high-risk African-American students at middle adolescence: positive effects of early intervention. Am Educ Res J1995;32:743–72.
Copple CE, Cline MG, Smith AN. Path to the future: long-term effects of Head Start in the Philadelphia school district. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Office of Human Development Services; Administration for Children, Youth and Families; Head Start Bureau, 1987.
Eisenberg L, Conners C. The effect of Head Start on developmental processes. Washington, DC: Department of Health, Education and Welfare; Office of Economic Opportunity, 1966. OEO-510.
Hale BA, Seitz V, Zigler E. Health services and Head Start: a forgotten formula. J Appl Dev Psychol 1990;11:447–58.
Howard JL, Plant WT. Psychometric evaluation of an Operation Head Start program. J Genet Psychol 1967;111:281–8.
Lazar I, Darlington R. Lasting effects of early education: a report from the Consortium for Longitudinal Studies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 1982.
Lee VE, Brooks-Gunn J, Schnur E. Does Head Start work? A 1-year follow-up comparison of disadvantaged children attending Head Start, no preschool, and other preschool programs.Dev Psychol 1988;24:210 –22.
Lee VE, Brooks-Gunn J, Schnur E, Liaw F. Are Head Start effects sustained? A longitudinal follow-up comparison of disadvantaged children attending Head Start, no preschool, and other preschool programs. Child Dev 1990;61:495–507.
Malakoff ME, Underhill JM, Zigler E. Influence of inner-city environment and Head Start experience on effectance motivation. Am J Orthopsychiatry 1998;68:630–8.
Oyemade UJ, Washington V, Gullo DF. The relationship between Head Start parental involvement and the economic and social self-sufficiency of Head Start families. J Negro Educ 1989;58:5–15.
Ramey CT, Campbell FA. Poverty, early childhood education and academic competence: the Abecedarian experiment. In: Huston A, ed. Children in poverty: child development and public policy. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991;190–221.
Schweinhart LJ, Barnes HV, Weikart DP. Significant benefits: the High/ Scope Perry Preschool study through age 27. Ypsilanti, MI: High/Scope Press, 1993.
Schweinhart LJ, Weikart DP, Larner MB. Consequences of three preschool curriculum models through age 15. Early Child Res Q 1986;1:15–45.
Sontag M, Sella A, Thorndike R. The effect of Head Start training on the cognitive growth of disadvantaged children. J Educ Res 1969;62:387–9.
Sklerov A. The effect of preschool experience on the cognitive style of reflectivity-impulsivity of disadvantaged children. Graduate Res Educ Related Disciplines 1974;7:77–91.
Zigler E, Abelson W, Trickett P, Seitz V. Is an intervention program necessary in order to improve economically disadvantaged children's IQ scores? Child Dev 1982;53:340–8.
We searched in five computerized databases: PsychInfo, Educational Resource Information Center (ERIC), Medline, Social Science Search, and the Head Start Bureau research database. Published annotated bibliographies on Head Start and other early childhood development research, reference lists of reviewed articles, meta-analyses, and Internet resources were also examined, as were referrals from specialists in the field. To be included in the reviews of effectiveness, studies had to:
- Document an evaluation of an early childhood development program within the United States
- Be published in English between 1965 and 2000
- Compare outcomes among groups of people exposed to the intervention with outcomes among groups of people not exposed or less exposed to the intervention (whether the comparison was concurrent between groups or before-and-after within groups)
- Measure outcomes defined by the analytic framework for the intervention