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Increasing Appropriate Vaccination: Home Visits to Increase Vaccination Rates

Task Force Finding

The Community Preventive Services Task Force recommends home visits based on strong evidence of their effectiveness in increasing vaccination rates. The Task Force notes, however, the economic evidence showing that home visits can be resource-intensive and costly relative to other options for increasing vaccination rates. Evidence on effectiveness was considered strong based on a body of evidence that included studies of home visits delivered to all clients or to those unresponsive to other interventions, home visits focused on vaccination alone or in combination with other health concerns, and home visits that provided vaccinations on-site or referred clients to vaccination services outside the home.

Read the full Task Force Finding and Rationale Statement for details including implementation issues, possible added benefits, potential harms, and evidence gaps.

Intervention Definition

In these programs, home visitors assess clients' vaccination status, discuss the importance of recommended vaccinations, and either provide vaccinations to clients in their homes or refer them to available immunization services. Home visits may be conducted by vaccination providers (e.g., nurses) or others (e.g., social workers, community health workers).

Interventions may be directed to all clients in a designated population (e.g., low-income single mothers), or to those clients who have been unresponsive to previous intervention efforts, such as client reminder and recall systems. Home visiting programs may be implemented alone or as part of a larger healthcare system or community-based program to increase vaccination rates.

About the Systematic Review

This Task Force finding is based on evidence from a Community Guide systematic review completed in 2009 (19 studies, search period 1980-2009) combined with more recent evidence (4 studies, search period 2009-2012). The finding updates and replaces the 2009 finding for Home Visits to Increase Vaccination Rates.

This review was conducted on behalf of the Task Force by a team of specialists in systematic review methods, and in research, practice and policy related to increasing appropriate vaccination. Subscribe External Web Site Icon to be notified as new materials on this topic become available.

Supporting Materials


Jacob V, Chattopadhyay SK, Hopkins DP, Murphy Morgan J, Pitan AA, Clymer JM, the Community Preventive Services Task Force. Increasing coverage of appropriate vaccinations: a Community Guide systematic economic review. Adobe PDF File [PDF - 440 kB] Am J Prev Med 2016;50(6):797–808.

Read other Community Guide publications about Increasing Appropriate Vaccinations in our library.


The findings and conclusions on this page are those of the Community Preventive Services Task Force and do not necessarily represent those of CDC. Task Force evidence-based recommendations are not mandates for compliance or spending. Instead, they provide information and options for decision makers and stakeholders to consider when determining which programs, services, and policies best meet the needs, preferences, available resources, and constraints of their constituents.

Sample Citation

The content of publications of the Guide to Community Preventive Services is in the public domain. Citation as to source, however, is appreciated. Sample citation: Guide to Community Preventive Services. Increasing appropriate vaccination: home visits to increase vaccination rates (abbreviated). Last updated: MM/DD/YYYY.

Review completed: February 2016