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Increasing Appropriate Vaccination: Community-Based Interventions Implemented in Combination

Task Force Finding

The Community Preventive Services Task Force recommends community-based interventions implemented in combination to increase vaccinations in targeted populations, on the basis of strong evidence of effectiveness in increasing vaccination rates.

The conclusion of strong evidence was based on findings from 17 studies that evaluated coordinated interventions to:

  1. Increase community demand
  2. Enhance access to vaccination services
  3. Reduce missed opportunities by vaccination providers

In 13 of the 17 studies, the community-based effort combined one or more interventions to increase community demand for vaccinations with one or more interventions to enhance access to vaccination services. 

The Task Force notes that implementing manual outreach and tracking or home visits can be resource-intensive and costly, relative to other options for increasing vaccination rates. Such interventions should be used only when there is demonstrated need, and resources are available.

Read the full Task Force Finding and Rationale Statement for details including implementation issues, possible added benefits, potential harms, and evidence gaps.

Intervention Definition

Community-based interventions implemented in combination involve activities coordinated in a community to increase vaccination rates within a targeted population. Activities focus on increasing community demand for vaccinations and enhancing access to vaccination services. Efforts may also include interventions directed at vaccination providers.

Programs usually involve partnerships of community organizations, local government, and vaccination providers. Coordinated interventions may include:

  • Client reminder and recall systems
  • The use of staff to conduct manual outreach and tracking of clients
  • Mass and small media
  • Educational activities
  • Expanded access to vaccination services

About the Systematic Review

The Task Force recommendation was made in June 2010. It is based on relevant evidence from two previously completed reviews (Multicomponent Interventions for Expanding Access in Healthcare Settings, and Multicomponent Interventions that include Education; search period 1980-1997) and an updated review (search period 1997-2009). Updates of reviews are conducted to incorporate more recent evidence.

These reviews were conducted on behalf of the Task Force by a team of specialists in systematic review methods, and in research, practice and policy related to vaccinations to prevent diseases. Please subscribe External Web Site Icon to be notified as new materials on this topic become available.

Publication Status

Full peer-reviewed articles of this systematic review will be posted on the Community Guide website when published. Subscribe External Web Site Icon to be notified when we post these publications or other materials. See our library for previous Community Guide publications on this and other topics.



The findings and conclusions on this page are those of the Community Preventive Services Task Force and do not necessarily represent those of CDC. Task Force evidence-based recommendations are not mandates for compliance or spending. Instead, they provide information and options for decision makers and stakeholders to consider when determining which programs, services, and policies best meet the needs, preferences, available resources, and constraints of their constituents.

Sample Citation

The content of publications of the Guide to Community Preventive Services is in the public domain. Citation as to source, however, is appreciated. Sample citation: Guide to Community Preventive Services. Increasing appropriate vaccination: community-based interventions implemented in combination (abbreviated). Last updated: MM/DD/YYYY.

Review completed: June 2010