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Increasing Appropriate Vaccination: Reducing Client Out-of-Pocket Costs for Vaccinations

Task Force Finding

The Community Preventive Services Task Force recommends interventions that reduce client out-of-pocket costs based on strong evidence of effectiveness in improving vaccination rates. The effectiveness of these interventions has been demonstrated among children, adolescents, and adults, in a range of settings and populations, when applied in varying levels of scale from individual clinical settings to statewide programs to national efforts, and whether used alone or as part of a multi-component intervention.

Read the full Task Force Finding and Rationale Statement for details including implementation issues, possible added benefits, potential harms, and evidence gaps.

Intervention Definition

Reducing out-of-pocket costs (ROPC) to clients for vaccinations involves program and policy changes that make vaccinations or the administration of vaccinations more affordable. Costs can be reduced by paying for vaccinations or administration, providing new or expanded insurance coverage, or lowering or eliminating patient out-of-pocket expenses at the point-of-service (e.g., copayments, coinsurances, and deductibles).

About the Systematic Review

The Task Force finding is based on evidence from a Community Guide systematic review completed in 2008 (15 studies, search period 1997 – 2009) combined with more recent evidence (5 studies, search period 2009 - 2012). The finding updates and replaces the 2008 finding for Reducing Client Out-of-Pocket Costs for Vaccinations.

This review was conducted on behalf of the Task Force by a team of specialists in systematic review methods, and in research, practice and policy related to increasing appropriate vaccination. Subscribe External Web Site Icon to be notified as new materials on this topic become available.

Supporting Materials


Jacob V, Chattopadhyay SK, Hopkins DP, Murphy Morgan J, Pitan AA, Clymer JM, the Community Preventive Services Task Force. Increasing coverage of appropriate vaccinations: a Community Guide systematic economic review. Adobe PDF File [PDF - 440 kB] Am J Prev Med 2016;50(6):797–808.

Read other Community Guide publications about Increasing Appropriate Vaccinations in our library.


The findings and conclusions on this page are those of the Community Preventive Services Task Force and do not necessarily represent those of CDC. Task Force evidence-based recommendations are not mandates for compliance or spending. Instead, they provide information and options for decision makers and stakeholders to consider when determining which programs, services, and policies best meet the needs, preferences, available resources, and constraints of their constituents.

Sample Citation

The content of publications of the Guide to Community Preventive Services is in the public domain. Citation as to source, however, is appreciated. Sample citation: Guide to Community Preventive Services. Increasing appropriate vaccination: reducing client out-of-pocket costs for vaccinations (abbreviated). Last updated: MM/DD/YYYY.

Review Completed: September 2014