Campaigns and Informational Approaches to Increase Physical Activity: Stand-Alone Mass Media Campaigns
Stand-alone mass media campaigns are interventions that rely on mass media channels to deliver messages about physical activity to large and relatively undifferentiated audiences. These campaigns are designed to:
- Increase awareness and/or knowledge of the benefits of physical activity
- Influence attitudes and beliefs about physical activity
- Change physical activity behaviors within defined populations
Messages are transmitted using channels such as newspapers, brochures, manuals, radio, television, billboards, and websites either singly or in combination.
Stand-alone mass media campaigns are distinct from mass media employed as part of broader multicomponent interventions (e.g., broader community-wide campaigns) that also may incorporate individually oriented health behavior change programs and activities, social support networks, and environmental and/or policy changes.
Summary of Task Force Recommendations and Findings
The Community Preventive Services Task Force concludes there is insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of stand-alone mass media campaigns to increase physical activity at the population level.
Sixteen eligible studies that evaluated stand-alone mass media campaigns of varied intensity and duration (i.e., 1 week to 5 years), targeting varied populations, using diverse control and comparison conditions and diverse physical activity outcome measures, found modest and inconsistent effects.
Results from the Systematic Review
The Task Force finding is based on evidence from a Community Guide systematic review published in 2002 (3 studies, search period 1980-2000) combined with more recent evidence (13 studies, search period 2000-2009). It updates the previous review on Mass Media Campaigns.
Sixteen studies qualified for the review. Study duration ranged from 1 week to 4 years.
- Proportion of people who reported being physically active (as defined within each study):
- In three studies, people reported spending more time engaging in physical activity: median relative increase of 4.4% (range of 3.1% to 18.2%).
- Three additional studies found people reported being more active as a result of a campaign, though increases were modest.
The review findings are based on a systematic review of all available studies, conducted on behalf of the Task Force by a team of specialists in systematic review methods, and in research, practice and policy related to increasing physical activity.
An economic review of this intervention was not conducted because the Task Force did not have enough information to determine if the intervention works.
- Analytic Framework – see Figure 2 on page 553 [PDF - 216 kB]
- Summary Evidence Table* [PDF - 127 kB]
- Included Studies
Brown DR, Soares J, Epping JM, Lankford TJ, Wallace JS, Hopkins D, Ramsey Buchanan L, Orleans CT, Community Preventive Services Task Force. Stand-alone mass media campaigns to increase physical activity. A Community Guide updated review. [PDF - 211 kB] Am J Prev Med 2012;43(5):551–61.
Community Preventive Services Task Force. Stand-alone mass media campaigns to increase physical activity. Updated findings from the Community Preventive Services Task Force. [PDF - 60 kB] Am J Prev Med 2012;43(5):562–4.
Read other Community Guide publications about Increasing Physical Activity in our library.
*PDF includes all of the information available and will not be updated.
The findings and conclusions on this page are those of the Community Preventive Services Task Force and do not necessarily represent those of CDC. Task Force evidence-based recommendations are not mandates for compliance or spending. Instead, they provide information and options for decision makers and stakeholders to consider when determining which programs, services, and policies best meet the needs, preferences, available resources, and constraints of their constituents.
The content of publications of the Guide to Community Preventive Services is in the public domain. Citation as to source, however, is appreciated. Sample citation: Guide to Community Preventive Services. Campaigns and informational approaches to increase physical activity: stand-alone mass media campaigns. www.thecommunityguide.org/pa/campaigns/massmedia.html. Last updated: MM/DD/YYYY.
Review completed: March 2010
- Page last reviewed: December 23, 2014
- Page last updated: December 23, 2014
- Content source: The Guide to Community Preventive Services