Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Control: Team-Based Care to Improve Blood Pressure Control
Team-based care to improve blood pressure control is a health systems-level, organizational intervention that incorporates a multidisciplinary team to improve the quality of hypertension care for patients. Team-based care is established by adding new staff or changing the roles of existing staff to work with a primary care provider.
Each team includes the patient, the patient's primary care provider, and other professionals such as nurses, pharmacists, dietitians, social workers, and community health workers. Team members provide process support and share responsibilities of hypertension care to complement the activities of the primary care provider. These responsibilities include medication management; patient follow-up; and adherence and self-management support.
Team-based care interventions typically include activities to:
- Facilitate communication and coordination of care support among various team members
- Enhance use of evidence-based guidelines by team members
- Establish regular, structured follow-up mechanisms to monitor patients' progress and schedule additional visits as needed
- Actively engage patients in their own care by providing them with education about hypertension medication, adherence support (for medication and other treatments), and tools and resources for self-management (including health behavior change)
Summary of Task Force Recommendations & Findings
The Community Preventive Services Task Force recommends team-based care to improve blood pressure control on the basis of strong evidence of effectiveness in improving the proportion of patients with controlled blood pressure and in reducing systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure. Evidence was considered strong based on findings from 77 studies of team-based care organized primarily with nurses and pharmacists working in collaboration with primary care providers, patients, and other professionals.
About the Intervention
- Team members who most often worked with patients and primary care providers were pharmacists and nurses.
- Medication management roles for team members were implemented in three different ways. Team members could:
- Change medications independent of the primary care provider
- Change medications with primary care provider approval or consultation
- Provide only adherence support and hypertension-related information, with no direct influence on prescribed medications
Results from the Systematic Review
The Task Force finding is based on evidence from a systematic review published in 2006 (Walsh et al., search period January 1980-July 2003) and a more recent Community Guide review (search period July 2003-January 2012).
Previous Review -- Walsh et al. (search period 1980-2003)
Twenty-eight studies were included in the review.
- Overall, there was an increase in the proportion of patients with controlled blood pressure, defined as being less than or equal to 140/90 mm Hg.
- Controlled systolic blood pressure: median increase of 21.8 percentage points (Interquartile interval [IQI]: 9.0 to 33.8, 9 studies)
- Controlled diastolic blood pressure: median increase of 17.0 percentage points (IQI: 5.7 to 24.5, 6 studies)
- Systolic blood pressure decreased by a median of 9.7 mm Hg (IQI: 4.2 to 14, 17 studies).
- Diastolic blood pressure decreased by 4.2 mm Hg (IQI: 0.2 to 6.8, 21 studies)
Community Guide Review (search period 2003-2012)
Forty-nine studies were included in the review.
- The proportion of patients with controlled blood pressure (less than or equal to 140/90 mm Hg) increased by a median of 12.0 percentage points (IQI: 3.0 to 19.5, 31 studies).
- Systolic blood pressure decreased by a median of 5.6 mm Hg (IQI: 1.95 to 7.3, 43 studies).
- Diastolic blood pressure decreased by 1.8 mm Hg (IQI: 0.7 to 3.2, 38 studies)
- In addition to improvements in blood pressure outcomes, team-based care was effective in improving other CVD risk factors, including:
- Diabetes (HbA1c and Blood Glucose levels)
- Cholesterol (Total and LDL cholesterol)
- For teams that included pharmacists, the median improvement in the proportion of patients with controlled blood pressure was considerably higher than the overall median increase.
- The effectiveness of team based care was greater when team members could change hypertensive medications independent of the primary care provider, or with primary care provider approval or consultation.
- Results from included studies are applicable to various groups and settings, including:
- Adults and older adults
- Women and men
- White and African-American populations
- Health care and community-based settings
- Analytic Framework [PDF - 118.6 kb]
- Summary Evidence Table [PDF - 1.82MB]
- Evidence Gaps
- Included Studies
- Search Strategy
The findings and results of this systematic review have not been published. You may subscribe to be notified as new materials on this topic become available.
- CDC Media Release: Task Force Recommends Team-Based Care for Improving Blood Pressure Control
Developed by CDC's Division for Heart Disease and Stroke in collaboration with Prevention The Community Guide
Community Guide News
- Community Preventive Services Task Force Recommends Team-Based Care to Improve Blood Pressure Control
Developed by The Community Guide in collaboration with CDC's Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention
More promotional materials for Community Guide reviews about Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Control.
Walsh J, McDonald K, Shojania K, et al. Quality improvement strategies for hypertension management: a systematic review. Medical Care 2006;44:646-57.
The findings and conclusions on this page are those of the Community Preventive Services Task Force and do not necessarily represent those of CDC.
The content of publications of the Guide to Community Preventive Services is in the public domain. Citation as to source, however, is appreciated. Sample citation: Guide to Community Preventive Services. Cardiovascular disease prevention and control: team-based care to improve blood pressure control. www.thecommunityguide.org/cvd/teambasedcare.html. Last updated: MM/DD/YYYY.
Review Completed: April 2012
- Page last reviewed: April 29, 2013
- Page last updated: April 29, 2013
- Content source: The Guide to Community Preventive Services