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Preventing Excessive Alcohol Consumption: Regulation of Alcohol Outlet Density

Included Studies

Alcohol Outlet Density Change

Blake D, Nied A. The demand for alcohol in the United Kingdom. Appl Econ 1997;29:1655–72.

Gruenewald PJ, Ponicki WR, Holder HD. The relationship of outlet densities to alcohol consumption: a time series cross-sectional analysis. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1993;17(1):38–47.

Gruenewald PJ, Remer L. Changes in outlet densities affect violence rates. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2006;30(7):1184–93.

Hoadley JF, Fuchs BC, Holder HD. The effect of alcohol beverage restrictions on consumption: a 25-year longitudinal analysis. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 1984;10(3):375–401.

Markowitz S, Chatterji P, Kaestner R. Estimating the impact of alcohol policies on youth suicides. J Ment Health Policy Econ 2003;6(1):37–46.

McCarthy P. Alcohol, public policy, and highway crashes: a time-series analysis of older-driver safety. Transp Econ Polcy 2005;39(1):109–25.

McCarthy P. Alcohol-related crashes and alcohol availability in grass-roots communities. Appl Econ 2003;35(11):1331–8.

McCornac DC, Filante RW. The demand for distilled spirits: an empirical investigation. J Stud Alcohol 1984;45(2):176–8.

Norstrom T. Outlet density and criminal violence in Norway, 1960–1995. J Stud Alcohol 2000;61(6):907–11.

Xie X, Mann RE, Smart RG. The direct and indirect relationships between alcohol prevention measures and alcoholic liver cirrhosis mortality. J Stud Alcohol 2000;61(4):499–506.

Privatization

Fitzgerald JL, Mulford HA. Consequences of increasing alcohol availability: the Iowa experience revisited. Br J Addict 1992;87(2):267–74.

Fitzgerald JL, Mulford HA. Privatization, price and cross-border liquor purchases. J Stud Alcohol 1993;54(4):462–4.

Holder HD, Wagenaar AC. Effects of the elimination of a state monopoly on distilled spirits' retail sales: a time-series analysis of Iowa. Br J Addict 1990;85:1615–25.

MacDonald S. The impact of increased availability of wine in grocery stores on consumption: four case histories. Br J Addict 1986;81:381–7.

Makela P. Whose drinking does the liberalization of alcohol policy increase? Change in alcohol consumption by the initial level in the Finnish panel survey in 1968 and 1969. Addiction 2002;97(6):701–6.

Mulford HA, Fitzgerald JL. Consequences of increasing off-premise wine outlets in Iowa. Brit J Addict 1988;83(11):1271–9.

Mulford HA, Ledolter J, Fitzgerald JL. Alcohol availability and consumption: Iowa sales data revisited. J Stud Alcohol 1992;53(5):487–94.

Ramstedt M. The repeal of medium-strength beer in grocery stores in Sweden-the impact on alcohol-related hospitalizations in different age groups. Finland: Nordic Council for Alcohol and Drug Research (NAD), 2002. No. 42.

Smart RG, Docherty D. Effects of the introduction of on premise drinking on alcohol-related accidents and impaired driving. J Stud Alcohol 1976;37:683–6.

Smart RG. The impact on consumption of selling wine in grocery stores. Alcohol Alcohol 1986;21(3):233–6.

Trolldal B. An investigation of the effect of privatization of retail sales of alcohol on consumption and traffic accidents in Alberta, Canada. Addiction 2005;100(5):662–71.

Trolldal B. The privatization of wine sales in Quebec in 1978 and 1983 to 1984. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2005;29(3):410–6.

Wagenaar AC, Holder HD. A change from public to private sale of wine: results from natural experiments in Iowa and West Virginia. J Stud Alcohol 1991;52(2):162–73.

Wagenaar AC, Holder HD. Changes in alcohol consumption resulting from the elimination of retail wine monopolies: results from five U.S. states. J Stud Alcohol 1995;56(5):566–72.

Alcohol Bans

Baughman R, Conlin M, Dickert-Conlin S, Pepper J. Slippery when wet: the effects of local alcohol access laws on highway safety. J Health Econ 2001;20(6):1089–96.

Berman M, Hull t, May P. Alcohol control by referendum in Northern native communities: the Alaska local option law. Arctic 2001;54(1):77–83.

Bowerman RJ. The effect of a community supported alcohol ban on prenatal alcohol and other substance abuse. Am J Public Health 1997;87(8):1378–9.

Britt H, Carlin BP, Toomey TL, Wagenaar AC. Neighborhood-level spatial analysis of the relationship between alcohol outlet density and criminal violence. Environ Ecol Stat 2005;12:411–26.

Chiu AY, Perez PE, Parker RN. Impact of banning alcohol on outpatient visits in Barrow, Alaska. JAMA 1997;278(21):1775–7.

Escobedo LG, Ortiz M. The relationship between liquor outlet density and injury and violence in New Mexico. Accid Anal Prev 2002;34(5):689–94.

Gallaher MM, Fleming DW, Berger LR, Sewell CM. Pedestrian and hypothermia deaths among Native Americans in New Mexico: between bar and home. AMA 1992;267(10):1345–8.

Hoadley JF, Fuchs BC, Holder HD. The effect of alcohol beverage restrictions on consumption: a 25-year longitudinal analysis. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 1984;10(3):375–401.

Markowitz S, Chatterji P, Kaestner R. Estimating the impact of alcohol policies on youth suicides. J Ment Health Policy Econ 2003;6(1):37–46.

May P. Arrests, alcohol and alcohol legalization among an American Indian tribe. Plains Anthropol 1975;20(68):129–34.

O'Neil JD. Community control over health problems: Alcohol prohibition in a Canadian Inuit village. Int J Circumpolar Health 1984;84:340–3.

Parker DA, Wolz MW, Harford TC. The prevention of alcoholism: an empirical report on the effects of outlet availability. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1978;2(4):339–43.

Smart RG, Docherty D. Effects of the introduction of on premise drinking on alcohol-related accidents and impaired driving. J Stud Alcohol 1976;37:683–6.

Smart RG. The impact on consumption of selling wine in grocery stores. Alcohol Alcohol 1986;21(3):233–6.

Treno AJ, Gruenewald PJ, Johnson FW. Alcohol availability and injury: the role of local outlet densities. Alcohol: Clin Exper Res 2001;25(10):1467–71.

Wood DS, Gruenewald PJ. Local alcohol prohibition, police presence and serious injury in isolated Alaska Native villages. Addiction 2006;101(3):393–403.

Licensing Policy Changes Affecting Outlet Density

Blose JO, Holder HD. Public availability of distilled spirits: structural and reported consumption changes associated with liquor-by-the-drink. J Stud Alcohol 1987;48(4):371–9.

Makela P. Whose drinking does the liberalization of alcohol policy increase? Change in alcohol consumption by the initial level in the Finnish panel survey in 1968 and 1969. Addiction 2002;97(6):701–6.

Olafsdottir H. The dynamics of shifts in alcoholic beverage preference: effects of the legalization of beer in Iceland. J Stud Alcohol 1998;59(1):107–14.

Wagenaar AC, Langley JD. Alcohol licensing system changes and alcohol consumption: introduction of wine into New Zealand grocery stores. Addiction 1995;90(6):773–83.

Secondary Evidence

Alaniz ML. Immigrants and violence: The importance of neighborhood context. Hisp Behav Sci 1998;20(2):155–74.

Britt H, Carlin BP, Toomey TL, Wagenaar AC. Neighborhood-level spatial analysis of the relationship between alcohol outlet density and criminal violence. Environ Ecol Stat 2005;12:411–26.

Cohen DA, Mason K, Scribner R. The population consumption model, alcohol control practices, and alcohol-related traffic fatalities. Prev Med 2002;34(2):187–97.

Colon I, Cutter HS. The relationship of beer consumption and state alcohol and motor vehicle policies to fatal accidents. J Safety Res 1983;14(2):83–9.

Colon I. Alcohol availability and cirrhosis mortality rates by gender and race. Am J Public Health 1981;71(12):1325–8.

Colon I. The influence of state monopoly of alcohol distribution and the frequency of package stores on single motor vehicle fatalities. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 1982;9(3):325–31.

Dull RT. An assessment of the effects of alcohol ordinances on selected behaviors and conditions. J Drug Issues 1986;16(4):511–21.

Dull RT. Dry, damp, and wet: correlates and presumed consequences of local alcohol ordinances. Am Drug Alcohol Abuse 1988;14(4):499–514.

Escobedo LG, Ortiz M. The relationship between liquor outlet density and injury and violence in New Mexico. Accid Anal Prev 2002;34(5):689–94.

Freisthler B, Gruenewald PJ, Treno AJ, Lee J. Evaluating alcohol access and the alcohol environment in neighborhood areas. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2003;27(3):477–84.

Freisthler B, Midanik LT, Gruenewald PJ. Alcohol outlets and child physical abuse and neglect: applying routine activities theory to the study of child maltreatment. J Stud Alcohol 2004;65(5):586–92.

Freisthler B, Needell B, Gruenewald PJ. Is the physical availability of alcohol and illicit drugs related to neighborhood rates of child maltreatment? Child Abuse Negl 2005;29(9):1049–60.

Freisthler B. A spatial analysis of social disorganization, alcohol access, and rates of child maltreatment in neighborhoods. Child Youth Serv Rev 2004;26(9):803–19.

Godfrey C. Licensing and the demand for alcohol. App Econ 1988;20:1541–58.

Gorman D, Speer P, Gruenewald P, Labouvie E. Spatial dynamics of alcohol availability, neighborhood structure and violent crime. J Stud Alcohol 2001;62(5):628–36.

Gorman DM, Labouvie EW, Speer PW, Subaiya AP. Alcohol availability and domestic violence. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 1998;24(4):661–73.

Gorman DM, Speer PW, Labouvie EW, Subaiya AP. Risk of assaultive violence and alcohol availability in New Jersey. Am J Public Health 1998;88(1):97–100.

Gorman DM, Zhu L, Horel S. Drug 'hot-spots,' alcohol availability and violence 220. Drug Alcohol Rev 2005;24(6):507–13.

Gruenewald PJ, Johnson FW, Treno AJ. Outlets, drinking and driving: a multilevel analysis of availability. J Stud Alcohol 2002;63(4):460–8.

Gruenewald PJ, Millar AB, Treno AJ, Yang Z, Ponicki WR, Roeper P. The geography of availability and driving after drinking. Addiction 1996;91(7):967–83.

Gruenewald PJ, Treno AJ, Nephew TM, Ponicki WR. Routine activities and alcohol use: Constraints on outlet utilization. Alcohol Clin Exper Res 1995;19(1):44–53.

Gyimah-Brempong K. Alcohol availability and crime: evidence from census tract data. South Econ J 2001;68(1):2–21.

Harford T, Parker D, Pautler C, Wolz M. Relationship between the number of on-premise outlets and alcoholism. Stud Alcohol 1979;40(11):1053–7.

Jewell RT, Brown RW. Alcohol availability and alcohol-related motor vehicle accidents. Appl Econ 1995;27:759–65.

Kelleher KJ, Pope SK, Kirby RS, Rickert VI. Alcohol availability and motor vehicle fatalities. J Adolesc Health 1996;19(5):325–30.

LaScala EA, Gerber D, Gruenewald PJ. Demographic and environmental correlates of pedestrian injury collisions: a spatial analysis. Accid Anal Prev 2000;32:651–8.

LaScala EA, Johnson FW, Gruenewald PJ. Neighborhood characteristics of alcohol-related pedestrian injury collisions: a geostatistical analysis. Prev Sci 2001;2(2):123–34.

Lipton R, Gruenewald P. The spatial dynamics of violence and alcohol outlets. J Stud Alcohol 2002;63(2):187–95.

Markowitz S, Grossman M. Alcohol regulation and domestic violence towards children. Contemp Econ Policy 1998;16(3):309–20.

Neuman C, Rabow J. Drinkers' use of physical availability of alcohol: buying habits and consumption level. Inter Addict 1985;20(11–12):1663–73.

Nielsen AL, Martinez R, Lee MT. Alcohol, ethnicity, and violence: the role of alcohol availability for Latino and Black aggravated assaults and robberies. Sociol Q 2005;46:479–502.

Ornstein S, Hanssens D. Alcohol control laws and the consumption of distilled spirits and beer. J Consum Res 1985;12(2):200–13.

Parker DA, Wolz MW, Harford TC. The prevention of alcoholism: an empirical report on the effects of outlet availability. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1978;2(4):339–43.

Parker DA. Alcohol problems and the availability of alcohol. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1979;3(4):309–12.

Pollack CE, Cubbin C, Ahn D, Winkleby M. Neighbourhood deprivation and alcohol consumption: does the availability of alcohol play a role? Int J Epidemiol 2005;34(4):772–80.

Rabow J, Watts RK. Alcohol availability, alcoholic beverage sales and alcohol-related problems. J Stud Alcohol 1982;43(7):767–801.

Reid RJ, Hughey J, Peterson NA. Generalizing the alcohol outlet-assaultive violence link: evidence from a U.S. Midwestern city. Subst Use Misuse 2003;38(14):1971–82.

Roncek DW. MP. Bars, blocks, and crimes revisted: linking the theory of routine activities to the empiricism of "hot spots." Criminol 1991;29(4):725–53.

Rush BR, Gliksman L, Brook R. Alcohol availability, alcohol consumption and alcohol-related damage. I. The distribution of consumption model. J Stud Alcohol 1986;47(1):1–10.

Scribner R, Cohen D, Kaplan S, Allen SH. Alcohol availability and homicide in New Orleans: conceptual considerations for small area analysis of the effect of alcohol outlet density. J Stud Alcohol 1999;60(3):310–6.

Scribner RA, Cohen DA, Fisher W. Evidence of a structural effect for alcohol outlet density: a multilevel analysis. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2000;24(2):188–95.

Scribner RA, MacKinnon DP, Dwyer JH. Alcohol outlet density and motor vehicle crashes in Los Angeles County cities. J Stud Alcohol 1994;55(4):447–53.

Scribner RA. The risk of assaultive violence and alcohol availability. Am J Public Health 1995;85(3):335–40.

Smart RG. Effects of two liquor store strikes on drunkenness, impaired driving and traffic accidents. J Stud Alcohol 1977;38(9):1785–9.

Speer PW. Violent crime and alcohol availability: relationships in an urban community. J Public Health Pol 1998;19(3):303–18.

Stevenson RJ, Lind B, Weatherburn D. The relationship between alcohol sales and assault in New South Wales, Australia. Addiction 1999;94(3):397–410.

Stout EM, Sloan FA, Liang L, Davies HH. Reducing harmful alcohol-related behaviors: effective regulatory methods. J Stud Alcohol 2000;61(3):402–12.

Tatlow JR, Clapp JD, Hohman MM. The relationship between the geographic density of alcohol outlets and alcohol-related hospital admissions in San Diego County. J Community Health 2000;25(1):79–88.

Treno A, Grube J, Martin S. Alcohol availability as a predictor of youth drinking and driving: a hierarchical analysis of survey and archival data. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2003;27(5):835–40.

Treno AJ, Gruenewald PJ, Johnson FW. Alcohol availability and injury: the role of local outlet densities. Alcohol: Clin Exper Res 2001;25(10):1467–71.

Treno AJ, Gruenewald PJ, Johnson FW. Alcohol availability and injury: the role of local outlet densities. Alcohol: Clin Exper Res 2001;25(10):1467–71.

van Oers JA, Garretsen HF. The geographic relationship between alcohol use, bars, liquor shops and traffic injuries in Rotterdam. J Stud Alcohol 1993;54(6):739–44.

Watts RK. Alcohol availability and alcohol-related problems in 213 California cities. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1983;7(1):47–58.

Weitzman ER, Folkman A, Folkman MP, Wechsler H. The relationship of alcohol outlet density to heavy and frequent drinking and drinking-related problems among college students at eight universities. Health Place 2003;9(1):1–6.

Wieczorek WF, Coyle JJ. Targeting DWI prevention. J Prev Interv Community 1998;17(1):15–30.

Zhu L, Gorman DM, Horel S. Alcohol outlet density and violence: a geospatial analysis.